Acta Scientific Cancer Biology (ASCB) (ISSN: 2582-4473)

Short Communication Volume 5 Issue 10

Human Saliva: A Prognostic, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Tool-Kit

Abhimanyu Mohanta*

Biju Pattnaik College, Singda, Mayurbhanj, Odisha, India

*Corresponding Author: Abhimanyu Mohanta, Biju Pattnaik College, Singda, Mayurbhanj, Odisha, India.
DOI: 10.31080/ASCB.2021.04.0342

Received: August 23, 2021; Published: September 14, 2021

  Saliva is an extracellular fluid produced and secreted by salivary glands in the mouth. About 93% by volume is secreted by the major salivary glands and the remaining 7% by the minor glands. In humans, biochemically, approximately 99% of saliva is water and the other 1% is composed of organic and inorganic molecules [1]. Organic substances include exfoliated epithelial cells (from which DNA can be extracted), white blood cells, mucus,, enzymes (such as amylase and lipase), antimicrobial agents such as secretory IgA, and lysozymes [2]. Saliva consists of both full-length and partially degraded forms of mRNA, its association with macromolecules may protect salivary RNA from degradation [3]. Besides these, human saliva contains a huge number of microRNAs (miRNAs) are found to be associated with pathophysiology of the body. Saliva is supersaturated with certain electrolytes and ions. These help the pH of the saliva within a range from 6.2-7.4 and maintains a buffer state in the oral cavity. This prevents minerals from dissolving in the dental hard tissues. Initially, saliva is isotonic when formed in the acini. Gradually it becomes hypotonic when it travels through the duct network. The hypotonicity of unstimulated saliva allows the taste buds to perceive different tastes without being masked by normal plasma sodium levels. Saliva helps to secrete carbonic anhydrase (gustin), which is thought to play a role in the development of taste buds [4]. In a nut-shell, salivary content differs with respect to emotional, neurological, nutritional, metabolical status and above all immunological response of the person concerned.

References

  1. Puy CL. “The role of saliva in maintaining oral health and as an aid to diagnosis”. Medicina Oral, Patología Oraly Cirugía Bucal 11 (2006): 449-455.
  2. Nosek TM. “Essentials of Human Physiology”. Archived from the original (2021).
  3. Park NJ., et al. “Characterization of RNA in saliva”. Clinical Chemistry6 (2006): 988-994.
  4. Manuel Ramos-Casals., et al. Sjogren's syndrome: Diagnosis and Therapeutics. Springer (2011): 522.
  5. Tenovuo J. “Antimicrobial function of human saliva-how important is it for oral health?” Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 5 (1998): 250-256.
  6. Malamud D., et al. “Antiviral activities in human saliva”. Advances in Dental Research 23 (2011): 34-37.
  7. Morinushi T., et al. “Mutans streptococci, Lactobacilli in saliva and acidity for microorganisms in dental plaque: Changes after restorative treatment”. The Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology 28 (2004): 327-332.
  8. Greabu M., et al. “Saliva-a diagnostic window to the body, both in health and in disease”. Journal of Medicine and Life 2 (2009): 124-132.
  9. Tsui NBY., et al. “Stability of endogenous and added RNA in blood specimens, serum, and plasma”. Clinical Chemistry10 (2002): 1647-1653.
  10. Thery C. “Exosomes: secreted vesicles and intercellular communications”. F1000 Biology Reports 3 (2011): 15.
  11. Park NJ., et al. “Salivary microRNA: discovery, characterization, and clinical utility for oral cancer detection”. Clinical Cancer Research17 (2009): 5473-5477.
  12. Liu CJ., et al. “Exploiting salivary miR-31 as a clinical biomarker of oral squamous cell carcinoma”. Head and Neck2 (2012): 219-224.
  13. Korpal M., et al. “The miR-200 family inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer cell migration by direct targeting of E-cadherin transcriptional repressors ZEB1 and ZEB2”. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 22 (2008): 14910-14914.
  14. Prasad SR., et al. “Expression of Salivary miRNA 21 in Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF): An Observational Study”. MicroRNA 9 (2020): 295-302.
  15. Natarajasundaram T., et al. “Expression profile of salivary micro RNA-21 and 31 in oral potentially malignant disorders”. Brazilian Oral Research 34 (2020): e002.
  16. Wiegand C., et al. “Stress-associated changes in salivary microRNAs can be detected in response to the Trier Social Stress Test: An exploratory study”. Scientific Reports 8 (2018): 7112.
  17. Al-Rawi NH., et al. “Salivary microRNA 155, 146a/b and 203: A pilot study for potentially non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers of periodontitis and diabetes mellitus”. Plos One8 (2020): e0237004.
  18. Fadhil RS., et al. “Salivary microRNA miR-let-7a-5p and miR-3928 could be used as potential diagnostic bio-markers for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma”. Plos One 3 (2020): e0221779.
  19. Wu L., et al. “Genome-wide study of salivary microRNAs as potential noninvasive biomarkers for detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma”. BMC Cancer 19 (2019): 843.
  20. Kelvin Kai-Wang., et al. “Consistent Detection of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in Saliva”. Clinical Infectious Diseases (2020).

Citation

Citation: Abhimanyu Mohanta. “Human Saliva: A Prognostic, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Tool-Kit”. Acta Scientific Cancer Biology 5.10 (2021): 08-10.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2021 Abhimanyu Mohanta. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.018

Indexed In




News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is December 05, 2021.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US