Human Saliva: A Prognostic, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Tool-Kit
Biju Pattnaik College, Singda, Mayurbhanj, Odisha, India
*Corresponding Author: Abhimanyu Mohanta, Biju Pattnaik College, Singda, Mayurbhanj, Odisha, India.
August 23, 2021; Published: September 14, 2021
Saliva is an extracellular fluid produced and secreted by salivary glands in the mouth. About 93% by volume is secreted by the major salivary glands and the remaining 7% by the minor glands. In humans, biochemically, approximately 99% of saliva is water and the other 1% is composed of organic and inorganic molecules . Organic substances include exfoliated epithelial cells (from which DNA can be extracted), white blood cells, mucus,, enzymes (such as amylase and lipase), antimicrobial agents such as secretory IgA, and lysozymes . Saliva consists of both full-length and partially degraded forms of mRNA, its association with macromolecules may protect salivary RNA from degradation . Besides these, human saliva contains a huge number of microRNAs (miRNAs) are found to be associated with pathophysiology of the body. Saliva is supersaturated with certain electrolytes and ions. These help the pH of the saliva within a range from 6.2-7.4 and maintains a buffer state in the oral cavity. This prevents minerals from dissolving in the dental hard tissues. Initially, saliva is isotonic when formed in the acini. Gradually it becomes hypotonic when it travels through the duct network. The hypotonicity of unstimulated saliva allows the taste buds to perceive different tastes without being masked by normal plasma sodium levels. Saliva helps to secrete carbonic anhydrase (gustin), which is thought to play a role in the development of taste buds . In a nut-shell, salivary content differs with respect to emotional, neurological, nutritional, metabolical status and above all immunological response of the person concerned.
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