Acta Scientific Cancer Biology (ASCB)

Review Article Volume 4 Issue 9

Unveiling the Genomic Landscape of Gastric Cancer Diagnosis, a Snapshot

Kanishka Uthansingh1,2, Sunil Kumar Agarwala3 and Manoj Kumar Sahu1,2*

1Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Institute of Medical Sciences and SUM Hospital, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
2Molecular Diagnostic and Research Center (MDRC), Institute of Medical Sciences and SUM Hospital, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
3Department of Surgical Oncology, Institute of Medical Sciences and SUM Hospital, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

*Corresponding Author: Manoj Kumar Sahu, Professor, Department of Gastroenterology, IMS and SUM Hospital, Siksha O Anusandhan Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

Received: June 22, 2020; Published: August 24, 2020



Gastric cancer (GC) still one of the most prevalent malignancies across the globe. So far, the majority of research studies have not come up with a proper diagnostic and therapeutic approach which may be due to lack of external validation. Attempts have been undertaken but due to methodological shortcomings and insufficient reporting, the breach between biomarker discovery and its clinical use not been explored. So, there should be an improved systematized tunnel of diagnostic marker approach focusing on correct methodology, quality of support, and emphasis on external validation which could have an impact on better clinical diagnosis and prognostication. This review aimed at the early diagnosis of GC through biomarkers and their potential applications in cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Moreover, this review highlights the genetic, epigenetic modifications, signaling pathways, and NGS advancement that could identify the novel therapeutic targets as well as noninvasive biomarkers for therapeutic response.

Keywords: Gastric Cancer (GC); Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori); Epigenetics; MicroRNAs (MiRNA); Next Generation Sequencing (NGS); Microsatellite Instability (MSI); Biomarker



  1. Feizy A., et al. “HER2 Expression Status and Prognostic, Diagnostic, and Demographic Properties of Patients with Gastric Cancer: a Single Center Cohort Study from Iran”. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 19 (2018): 1721-1725.
  2. Bray F., et al. “Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries”. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 68 (2018): 394-424.
  3. Ni C., et al. “Role of Digeorge syndrome critical region gene 9, a long noncoding rna, in gastric cancer”. Onco Targets and therapy 11 (2018): 2259-2267.
  4. Mukaisho K., et al. “Two distinct etiologies of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma: interactions among pH, Helicobacter pylori, and bile acids”. Frontiers in Microbiology 6 (2015): 1-7.
  5. Rawla P and Barsouk A. “Epidemiology of gastric cancer: global trends, risk factors and prevention”. Przeglad Gastroenterologiczny 14 (2019): 26-38.
  6. Zhou D., et al. “Combining multi‐dimensional data to identify a key signature (gene and miRNA) of cisplatin‐resistant gastric cancer”. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 119 (2018): 6997-7008.
  7. Moss SF. “The clinical evidence linking Helicobacter pylori to gastric cancer”. Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology 3 (2017): 183-191.
  8. Cheung KS., et al. “Risk of gastric cancer development after eradication of Helicobacter pylori”. World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology 10 (2018): 115-123.
  9. Choi IJ., et al. “Family history of gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori treatment”. New England Journal of Medicine 382 (2020): 427-36. 
  10. Uthansingh K., et al. “COX-2 and CYP2C9 polymorphism and the risk of gastric cancer in the population of Odisha”. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 34 (2019): 258.
  11. Chen J., et al. “Expression and Significance of MyD88 in Patients With Gastric Cardia Cancer in a High-Incidence Area of China”. Frontiers in Oncology 10 (2020): 1-9.
  12. Nagtegaal ID., et al. “The 2019 WHO classification of tumours of the digestive system”. Histopathology 76 (2020): 182-188.
  13. Leja M., et al. “Implementation of gastric cancer screening-the global experience”. Best Practice and Research Clinical Gastroenterology 28 (2014): 1093-106.
  14. Choi KS., et al. “Performance of different gastric cancer screening methods in Korea: a population-based study”. PLoS One 7 (2012): 1-8.
  15. Yada T., et al. “The current state of diagnosis and treatment for early gastric cancer”. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy 2013 (2013): 1-9.
  16. Ahn HS., et al. “Serum biomarker panels for the diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma”. British journal of Cancer 106 (2012): 733-739.
  17. Mi L., et al. “Prognostic biomarker in advanced gastric cancer”. Translational Gastrointestinal Cancer 5 (2016): 16-19.
  18. Abbas M., et al. “Current and future biomarkers in gastric cancer”. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 103 (2018): 1688-700.
  19. Moon JS. “Screening Upper Endoscopy for Early Detection of Gastric Cancer”. Journal of Korean Medical Science 33 (2018): 1-2.
  20. Kotzev AI and Draganov PV. “Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9, Carcinoembryonic Antigen, and Carbohydrate Antigen 72-4 in Gastric Cancer: Is the Old Band Still Playing?” Gastrointestinal Tumors 5 (2018): 1-3. 
  21. Fang X., et al. “Detection of gastric carcinoma-associated antigen MG7-Ag in human sera using surface plasmon resonance sensor”. Cancer Epidemiology 34 (2010): 648-651.
  22. Shimada H., et al. “Clinical significance of serum tumor markers for gastric cancer: a systematic review of literature by the Task Force of the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association”. Gastric Cancer 17 (2014): 26-33. 
  23. Behjati S and Tarpey PS. “What is next generation sequencing?” Archives of Disease in Childhood - Education and Practice 98 (2013): 236-238.
  24. Verma R and Sharma PC. “Next generation sequencing-based emerging trends in molecular biology of gastric cancer”. American Journal of Cancer Research 8 (2018): 207-225.
  25. Pelullo M., et al. “Wnt, Notch, and TGF-β pathways impinge on Hedgehog signaling complexity: an open window on cancer”. Frontiers in Genetics 10 (2019).
  26. Molaei F., et al. “Molecular signaling in tumorigenesis of gastric cancer”. Iranian Biomedical Journal 22.4 (2018): 217.
  27. Peng Y., et al. “A DNA methylation signature to improve survival prediction of gastric cancer”. Clinical epigenetics 12 (2020): 1-16.
  28. Qu Y., et al. “Gene methylation in gastric cancer”. Clinica Chimica Acta 424 (2013): 53-65.
  29. Zeng XQ., et al. “Methylation modification in gastric cancer and approaches to targeted epigenetic therapy”. International Journal of Oncology 50 (2017): 1921-1933.
  30. Link A and Kupcinskas J. “MicroRNAs as non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers for gastric cancer: Current insights and future perspectives”. World Journal of Gastroenterology 24 (2018): 3313-329.
  31. Si W., et al. “The role and mechanisms of action of microRNAs in cancer drug resistance”. Clinical Epigenetics 11 (2019): 1-24.
  32. Xu X., et al. “miRNA: The nemesis of gastric cancer”. Oncology letters 6 (2013): 631-641.
  33. Goni E., et al. “Influence of laboratory-related and endoscopy-related factors on the assessment of serum pepsinogens and gastrin-17”. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 29 (2017): 1340-1345.
  34. Chu D., et al. “Increased microRNA-630 expression in gastric cancer is associated with poor overall survival”. PloS one 9 (2014): 1-5.
  35. Saeed AF., et al. “Microsatellites in pursuit of microbial genome evolution”. Frontiers in Microbiology 6 (2016): 1-15.
  36. Ratti M., et al. “Microsatellite instability in gastric cancer: molecular bases, clinical perspectives, and new treatment approaches”. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 75 (2018): 4151-4162.
  37. Li B., et al. “Detection of microsatellite instability in gastric cancer and dysplasia tissues”. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 8 (2015): 21442-447.
  38. RajanKd A., et al. “DNA mismatch repair defects and microsatellite instability status in periocular sebaceous carcinoma". American Journal of Ophthalmology 157 (2014): 640-647.
  39. Uehara T., et al. “H. pylori infection is associated with DNA damage of Lgr5-positive epithelial stem cells in the stomach of patients with gastric cancer”. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 58 (2013): 140-149.
  40. Yoon JH., et al. “NKX6. 3 is a transcription factor for Wnt/β-catenin and Rho-GTPase signaling-related genes to suppress gastric cancer progression”. EBioMedicine 9 (2016): 97-109.
  41. Qi L., et al. “Study on the association between PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway gene polymorphism and susceptibility to gastric cancer”. Journal of BUON 22 (2017): 1488-1493.
  42. Hill DG., et al. “Hyperactive gp130/STAT3‐driven gastric tumourigenesis promotes submucosal tertiary lymphoid structure development”. International Journal of Cancer 143 (2018): 167-178.
  43. Neves Filho EH., et al. “The association among HER2, MET and FOXP3 expression and tumor regression grading in gastric adenocarcinoma”. Apmis 126 (2018): 389-395.
  44. Choi JH., et al. “Identification of genomic aberrations associated with lymph node metastasis in diffuse-type gastric cancer”. Experimental and Molecular Medicine 50 (2018): 1-11.
  45. Yamaguchi T., et al. “Tumor-associated macrophages of the M2 phenotype contribute to progression in gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination”. Gastric Cancer 19 (2016): 1052-1065.
  46. Song S., et al. “Interaction between CD133 and PI3K-p85 promotes chemoresistance in gastric cancer cells”. American Journal of Translational Research 10 (2018): 304-314.
  47. Zhao Q., et al. “Clinical values of circular RNA 0000181 in the screening of gastric cancer”. Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis 32 (2018): 1-6.
  48. Hedayatizadeh Omran A., et al. “Association of P53 gene polymorphism with gastric cancer in Northern Iran as a high risk region”. Biomedical Reports 8 (2018): 433-438.
  49. Wang B., et al. “LGR5 is a gastric cancer stem cell marker associated with stemness and the EMT signature genes NANOG, NANOGP8, PRRX1, TWIST1, and BMI1”. PLoS One 11 (2016): 1-21.
  50. Liu J., et al. “Long noncoding RNA PANDAR blocks CDKN1A gene transcription by competitive interaction with p53 protein in gastric cancer”. Cell Death and Disease 9 (2018): 1-3.


Citation: Manoj Kumar Sahu., et al. “Unveiling the Genomic Landscape of Gastric Cancer Diagnosis, a Snapshot”.Acta Scientific Cancer Biology 4.9 (2020): 09-19.


Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.183

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is April 15, 2023.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US