Acta Scientific Cancer Biology (ASCB)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 5

Prehypertension, Hypertension and Associated Risk Factors among Adults Living in the Port City of Boma in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Survey

Blaise Makoso Nimi1,2, François Lepira Bompeka1, Aliocha Nkodila3*, Williams Ilenga2,4, Gédeon Long-Longo5, Dieudonné Vangu Ngoma5, Patrick Kayembe Kalambayi6, Eulethère Kintoki Vita1, Jean René M’Buyamba-Kabangu1 and Benjamin Longo Mbenza1,5

1Département de Médecine Interne, Cliniques Universitaires de Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
2Faculté de Médecine, Université Kasa vubu de Boma, Democratic Republic of the Congo
3Centre Médical Cité des Aveugles Mont Ngafula, Democratic Republic of the Congo
4Service d’Anatomopathologie, Cliniques Universitaires de Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
5Centre Hospitalier Lomo-Médical, Democratic Republic of the Congo
6Ecole de Santé Publique, Département de Bio-statistique, Democratic Republic of the Congo

*Corresponding Author: Aliocha Nkodila, Centre Médical Cité des Aveugles Mont Ngafula, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Received: February 13, 2020; Published: April 27, 2020

×

Abstract

Background: The risk for CVD starts to increase at BP levels above 115/75 mmHg. Therefore, early detection of individuals with mild to moderate BP increase could help reducing hypertension-associated CV risk. The present survey was aimed to assess the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in adults living in a port City.

Methods: In the present cross-sectional survey, a sample of households was systematically selected from the port City of Boma ant its rural suburb. A total of 3510 adult subjects (2265 men and 1245 women) were included in the study. Demographic, socioeconomic, clinical and biological data were collected using WHO Stepwise questionnaire. Systolic and diastolic BP were as well as heart rate measured for all subjects. Blood examination included only fasting capillary blood glucose taken between 8 - 10 hours a.m. following 12 hours of fasting. Prehypertension and hypertension were defined according to JNC7 guidelines. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors associated with both conditions. P values < 0.05 defined the level of statistical significance.

Results: The crude prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension was 11.4% and 35.5%, respectively. Increased age, overweight and obesity emerged as the main factors associated with both conditions whereas family history of hypertension and smoking were only associated with hypertension.

Conclusion: Prehypertension and hypertension were a common finding in the present survey and associated with lifestyle factors. A strategy based on therapeutic lifestyle changes and pharmacologic therapy (if needed) is awaited.

Keywords: Prehypertension; Hypertension; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Black Africans

×

References

  1. Cooper RS., et al. “High blood pressure: the foundation for epidemic cardiovascular disease in African populations”. Ethnicity and Disease 13-2.2 (2003): S48-S52.
  2. Sumaili E., et al. “Screening for proteinuria and chronic kidney disease risk factors in Kinshasa: A World”. Kidney Day Study 110 (2008): c220-c228.
  3. Bhatt DL., et al. “International prevalence, recognition and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors in out patients with atherothrombosis”. Journal of the American Medical Association 295 (2006): 180-189.
  4. Gunaranthne A., et al. “Secular trends in the cardiovascular risk profile and mortality of stroke admissions in an innercity, multiethnic population in the United Kingdom 1997- 2005”. Journal of Human Hypertension 22 (2008): 18-23.
  5. World Health Organization (WHO), author. “World Health Statistics”. Geneva WHO (2009).
  6. Lewington S., et al. “Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies”. Lancet 360 (2002): 1903-1913.
  7. World Health Organization. “Reducing risk, promoting healthy life”. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Report (2002).
  8. Chobanian AV., et al. “The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report”. Journal of the American Medical Association 289 (2003): 2560-2572.
  9. Bayauli P., et al. “Cardiovascular risk factors among the inhabitants of an urban Congolese community: results of the Vitaraa Study On behalf of the VITARAA”. IJC Metabolic and Endocrine 4 (2014): 33-38.
  10. Bayauli MP., et al. “Trends in prevalence of obesity and hypertension in an urban Congolese community”. Journal Epidemiological Research 1 (2018): 33-40.
  11. Katchunga PB., et al. “The trend in blood pressure and hypertension prevalence in the general population of South Kivu between 2012 and 2016: Results from two representative cross-sectional surveys- The Bukavu observational study”. PLoS ONE 8 (2012): e0219377.
  12. Kianu B., et al. “Rates of hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control in Congolese South West Port City. The influence of gender according to groups”. Global Journal of Medical Research 1 (2015): 1-8.
  13. M’Buyamba – Kabangu J., et al. “Blood pressure in Bantu of Zaïre: epidemiological aspects”. Trop Cardiology 13 (1987): 113-120.
  14. Lepira FB., et al. “Correlates of target organ damage among black patients with arterial hypertension”. Annals of African Medicine 3 (2009): 157-163.
  15. M'Buyamba-Kabangu JR., et al. “In-Hospital Mortality Among Black Patients Admitted for Hypertension-Related Disorders in Mbuji Mayi, Congo”. American Journal of Hypertension 6 (2009): 643-648.
  16. Bayauli PM., et al. “Prehypertension and hypertension, and associated cardiovascular risk factors among adult Congolese urban dwellers: results of the Vitaraa study”. World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases 8 (2014): 390-398.
  17. Atoba B., et al. “Prévalence, connaissance et degré de contrôle de l’hypertension artérielle à Kisangani, RD Congo”. Kis Medicine 2 (2014): 86-93.
  18. World Health Organization. “Global action plan for the prevention and control of non communicable diseases 2013-2020”. Geneva: World Health Organization (2013).
  19. World Health Organization. “Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ)”. Geneva, Switzerland.
  20. World Health Organization (WHO). “The problem of overweight and obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic”. Report Series 894; Geneva WHO (2000): 537.
  21. Alberti KG., et al. “Metabolic syndrome – a new world-wide definition. A Consensus Statement from the International Diabetes Federation”. Journal of Diabetes Medicine 5 (2006): 469-480.
  22. “Report of the Expert Committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus”. Diabetes Care1 (2003): S5-S20.
  23. Takeshi K., et al. “Hypertension artérielle et pression pulsée”. Mt Cardio5 (2006): 493-501.
  24. Orth SR., et al. “Smoking as a risk factor for end-stage renal failure in men with primary renal disease”. Kidney International 54 (2008): 926-931.
  25. “2013-2014 Democratic Republic of the Congo Demographic and Health Survey (DHS)”. Ministry of Heath and Ministry of Planification, rapport préliminaire Mai (2014).
  26. Guwatudde D., et al. “The burden of hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa: a four-country cross sectional study”. BMC Public Health 15 (2015): 1211.
  27. Nansseu JR., et al. “Prevalence of major cardiovascular disease risk factors among a group of sub-Saharan African young adults: a population-based cross-sectional study in Yaoundé, Cameroon”. BMJ Open10 (2019): e029858.
  28. Nuwaha F and Musinguzi G. “Pre-hypertension in Uganda: a cross-sectional study”. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 13 (2013): 101.
  29. Irazola EZ. “Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control in Selected Communities of Nine Low- and Middle Income Countries: Results From the NHLBI/UHG Network of Centers of Excellence for Chronic Diseases”. Global Heart 1 (2016): 47-59.
  30. Owiredu EW., et al. “Demographic and Lifestyle Predictors of Prehypertension: A Cross-Sectional Study among Apparently Healthy Adults in Kumasi, Ghana”. BioMed Research International (2019):1764079.
  31. Isezuo SA., et al. “Prevalence, associated factors and relationship between prehypertension and hypertension: a study of two ethnic African populations in Northern Nigeria”. Journal of Human Hypertension 4 (2011): 224-230.
  32. Pilleron S., et al. “EPIDEMCA group. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in older people in Central Africa: the EPIDEMCA study”. Journal of the American Society of Hypertension 7 (2017): 449-460.
  33. Pedro JM., et al. “Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia among adults in Dande municipality, Angola”. Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 2 (2018): 73-81.
  34. Kuate Defo B. “Demographic, epidemiological and health transitions: are they relevant to transition health patterns in Africa”. Global Health Action (2014): 7-22443.
  35. Ononamadu CJ., et al. “Comparative analysis of anthropometric indices of obesity as correlates and potential predictors of risk for hypertension and prehypertension in a population in Nigeria”. Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 2 (2017): 92-99.
  36. Ramos R., et al. “The role of aging in cardiovascular risk factor clustering in non-diabetic population free of coronary heart disease”. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 23 (2004): III-15-19.
  37. Plante GE. “Impact of aging on the body’s vascular system”. Metabolism10 (2003): 31-35.
  38. Reaven GM., et al. “Hypertension and associated metabolic abnormalities. The role of insulin resistance and the sympathoadrenal system”. The New England Journal of Medicine 2 (1996): 374-381.
  39. Freedman BI., et al. “APOL1-Associated Nephropathy: A Key Contributor to Racial Disparities in CKD”. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 5 (2018): S8-S16.
  40. Sumaili EK., et al. “G1 is the major APOL1 risk allele for hypertenstion-attributed nephropathy in Central Africa”. Clinical Kidney Journal 2 (2018): 188-195.
  41. Nadkarni GN., et al. “Apolipoprotein L1 variants and Blood Pressure Traits in African Americans”. Journal of the American College of Cardiology12 (2017): 1564-1574.
  42. Madika AL and Mounier-Vehier. “Smoking and blood pressure: a complex relationship”. La Presse Médicale 7-8 (2017): 697-702.
×

Citation

Citation: Aliocha Nkodila., et al. “Prehypertension, Hypertension and Associated Risk Factors among Adults Living in the Port City of Boma in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Survey”.Acta Scientific Cancer Biology 4.5 (2020): 24-32.




Metrics

Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.018

Indexed In




News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is December 15, 2021.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US