Acta Scientific Biotechnology (ASBT)

Research Article Volume 1 Issue 4

Engineered Pseudomonas putida for Biosynthesis of Catechol from Lignin Derived Model Compounds and Biomass Hydrolysate

Priya Upadhyay1 and Arvind Lali1,2*

1DBT-ICT Centre for Energy Biosciences, Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

*Corresponding Author: Arvind Lali, DBT-ICT Centre for Energy Biosciences and Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Received: March 02, 2020; Published: March 14, 2020



  Catechol is one of the industrially relevant chemicals with myriad applications. Its production via chemical route suffers from several drawbacks the major being a non-green and non-selective route. Currently, bio-based products using biocatalyst are gaining attention due to the growing awareness about the environmental and health hazards over the use of petroleum derived feedstock. Lignocellulosic biomass serves as a promising sustainable and renewable feedstock wherein celluloses have found successful ways to a variety of fuel and biochemical molecules but concomitantly results in surplus lignin being produced. Lignin valorization is the demand of the current scenario to make the cellulosic bio-refineries viable. This task is complicated by complexity, heterogeneity and diversity of lignin structures posing limitations towards lignin valorization via chemical routes. There are several microorganisms that possess the ability to metabolize lignin monomers via their central metabolic pathways and this paves a way to synthesis of a number of products. Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is one such organism and was chosen for genetic manipulations for catechol biosynthesis using lignin derived model compounds and biomass hydrolysate stream comprising of various lignin fragments/monomers. Catechol production was engineered by diverting various lignin monomers and addressing the identified metabolic bottlenecks particularly vanillic acid accumulation towards catechol biosynthesis. The engineered strain could convert the model lignin monomers as well as monomers in the biomass hydrolysates to catechol and vanillic acid in more than 60% and 90% molar yields, respectively.

Keywords: Pseudomonas putida; Catechol; Lignin Valorization; Lignin Derived Model Compounds; Biomass Hydrolysates



  1. Fiege H., et al. “Phenol Derivatives”. Ullmann's Encyclopedia Of Industrial Chemistry (2000).
  2. Ryu J., et al. “Bio-inspired adhesive catechol-conjugated chitosan for biomedical applications: A mini review”. Acta Biomaterialia 27 (2015): 101-115.
  3. Li W., et al. “Benzene-Free Synthesis of Catechol : Interfacing Microbial and Chemical Catalysis”. Journal of the American Chemical Society 127.9 (2005): 2874-2882.
  4. Young J. “Catechol”. Journal of Chemical Education 82.1 (2005): 31.
  5. Yang L. “Green and efficient synthesis route of catechol from guaiacol”. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical 368-369 (2013): 61-65.
  6. Ivanov D., et al. “New Way of Hydroquinone and Catechol Synthesis using Nitrous Oxide as Oxidant” Advance Synthesis and Catalysis 344.9 (2002): 986-995.
  7. Huang C., et al. “Synthesis of Catechols from Phenols via Pd-Catalyzed Silanol-Directed C-H Oxygenation’’. Journal of American Chemical Society 133.44 (2011): 17630-17633.
  8. Balderas-hernandez V., et al. “Catechol biosynthesis from glucose in Escherichia coli anthranilate-overproducer strains by heterologous expression of anthranilate 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1”. Microbial Cell Factories 13 (2014): 136.
  9. Kille L. “Biofuels, energy security, the environment and human health: Research roundup”. Journalist’s Resource (2014).
  10. Ragauskas A., et al. “Lignin valorization: Improving lignin processing in the biorefinery”. American Association for the Advancement of Science 344.6185 (2014): 1246843.
  11. Wyman C., et al. “Lignin Bioproducts to Enable Biofuels”. Bioproducts and Biorefining - Wiley Online Library (2015).
  12. Huang Y., et al. “Lignin-first biorefinery: a reusable catalyst for lignin depolymerization and application of lignin oil to jet fuel aromatics and polyurethane feedstock”. Sustainable Energy and Fuels 3 (2018).
  13. Sun Z., et al. “Bright Side of Lignin Depolymerization: Toward New Platform Chemicals”. Chemical Reviews 118.2 (2018): 614-678.
  14. Abdelaziz O., et al. “Biological valorization of low molecular weight lignin”. Biotechnology Advances 34.8 (2016): 1318-1346.
  15. Li C., et al. “Catalytic Transformation of Lignin for the Production of Chemicals and Fuels”. Chemical Review 115.21 (2015): 11559-11624.
  16. Dias F., et al. “Exploring the Microbial Production of Aromatic Fine Chemicals to Overcome the Barriers of Traditional Methods”. Advances in Applied Science Research 8.1 (2017): 94-109.
  17. Nelson E., et al. “Complete genome sequence and comparative analysis of the metabolically versatile Pseudomonas putida KT2440 “. Environmental Microbiology 4 (2002): 799-808.
  18. Jr T., et al. “Biotechnological opportunities with the β -ketoadipate pathway”. Trends in Biotechnology 30.12 (2012): 627-637.
  19. Wang C., et al. “Isolation of a benzoate-utilizing Pseudomonas strain from soil and production of catechol from benzoate by transpositional mutants”. Microbiological Research 156 (2001): 151-158.
  20. Xiong W., et al. “Mutagenesis of catA from Pseudomonas Sp. B3-1 to Enhance Catechol Accumulation.” Advanced Materials Research, Trans Tech Publications, Ltd (2012): 1615-1620.
  21. Fenske J., et al. “Comparison of aromatic monomers in lignocellulosic biomass prehydrolysates”. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 20.6 (1998): 364-368. 
  22. Tang P., et al. “Production of Monomeric Aromatic Compounds from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Lignin by Chemical and Enzymatic Methods”. BioMed Research International 2015 (2015).
  23. Hmelo L., et al. “Precision-engineering the Pseudomonas aeruginosa genome with two-step allelic exchange”. Nature Protocols 10.11 (2105): 1820-1841.
  24. GM Sambrook J. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. 4 ed, 1 (2012).
  25. Choi k., et al. “A 10-min method for preparation of highly electrocompetent Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells : Application for DNA fragment transfer between chromosomes and plasmid transformation”. Journal of Microbiological Method 64 (2006): 391-397.
  26. Jimenez J. “A second chromosomal copy of the catA gene endows Pseudomonas putida mt-2 with an enzymatic safety valve for excess of catechol”. Environmental Microbiology 16 (2014): 1767-1778.
  27. Payer S., et al. “Regioselective para-Carboxylation of Catechols with a Prenylated Flavin Dependent Decarboxylase”. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 56.44 (2017): 13893-13897.


Citation: Priya Upadhyay and Arvind Lali. “Engineered Pseudomonas putida for Biosynthesis of Catechol from Lignin Derived Model Compounds and Biomass Hydrolysate".Acta Scientific Biotechnology 1.4 (2020): 03-12.


Acceptance rate36%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 10, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US