Acta Scientific Applied Physics

Research Article Volume 3 Issue 6

Imaging of Antiferromagnetic Domains by Using Magneto-Optical Birefringence Effect Microscopy Technique: An Overview

Sucheta Mondal*

Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar Institution of Eminence, Tehsil Dadri, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India

*Corresponding Author: Sucheta Mondal, Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar Institution of Eminence, Tehsil Dadri, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Received: May 17, 2023; Published: May 31, 2023

Abstract

The emerging field of ‘Antiferromagnetic Spintronics’ is one of the most promising contenders for the next-generation information storage and processing applications. Antiferromagnets are immune to the external magnetic field of magnitude up to few Tesla! They have high exchange anisotropy and zero dipolar field. These characteristics promote them as suitable candidates for designing denser, faster, and energy-efficient spintronic devices. To integrate antiferromagnetic components inside an on-chip microelectronic circuitry it is important to manipulate the magnetic states with small charge current. However, when it comes to the detection, zero dipole moment makes them irresponsive to the conventional magnetometry measurements. It requires probing with state-of-the- art facilities which is not accessible to everyone. Thus, it is difficult to establish the connection between the electric current driven spin-transport behavior and the domain modification without capturing the inside picture simultaneously. In this mini-review, a brief history of antiferromagnetic switching and the recent conflicts on the all-electrical manipulation of Neel vector are discussed. This is followed by an overview of the magneto-optical birefringence effect microscopy technique and its implementation for validating electrical switching with optical imaging. This article aims to provide the readers a broader idea about an unambiguous and powerful technique to visualize the enigmatic antiferromagnetic domains on the table top of a laboratory.

Keywords: Antiferromagnet; Magneto-optical Birefringence Effect; Neel Vector; Polarization; Anisotropy; Antiferromagnetic Switching

References

  1. CC Chiang., et al. “Absence of evidence of electrical switching of the antiferromagnetic néel vector”. Physical Review Letters 123 (2019): 1.
  2. T Jungwirth., et al. “Antiferromagnetic spintronics”. Nature Nanotechnology 11 (2016): 231.
  3. K Olejník., et al. “Antiferromagnetic CuMnAs multi-level memory cell with microelectronic compatibility”. Nature Communication 8 (2017).
  4. T Satoh., et al. “Spin oscillations in antiferromagnetic NiO Triggered by circularly polarized light”. Physical Review Letters 105 (2010): 1.
  5. SY Bodnar., et al. “Writing and reading antiferromagnetic Mn2Au by Néel spin-orbit torques and large anisotropic magnetoresistance”. Nature Communication 9 (2018): 1.
  6. S Nakatsuji., et al. Nature 527 (2015): 212.
  7. W Zhang., et al. “Large anomalous Hall effect in a non-collinear antiferromagnet at room temperature”. Physical Review Letters 113 (2014): 1.
  8. P Wadley., et al. “Electrical switching of an antiferromagnet”. Science 351 (2016): 587.
  9. J Železný., et al. “Relativistic Néel-order fields induced by electrical current in antiferromagnets”. Physical Review Letters 113 (2014): 1.
  10. PH Lin., et al. “Manipulating exchange bias by spin-orbit torque”. Nature Material 18 (2019): 335.
  11. XZ Chen., et al. “Antidamping-torque-induced switching in biaxial antiferromagnetic insulators”. Physical Review Letters 120 (2018): 1.
  12. T Moriyama., et al. Scientific Report 8 (2018): 1.
  13. L Baldrati., et al. “Spin torque control of antiferromagnetic moments in NiO”. Physical Review Letters 123 (2019): 177201.
  14. CG Shull and JS Smart. “Detection of antiferromagnetism by neutron diffraction”. Physical Review 76 (1949): 1256.
  15. SW Cheong., et al. “Seeing is believing: visualization of antiferromagnetic domains”. Npj Quantum Material 5 (2020): 1.
  16. M Bode., et al. “Atomic spin structure of antiferromagnetic domain walls”. Nature Material 5 (2006): 477.
  17. I Gross., et al. Nature 549 (2017): 252.
  18. U Kaiser., et al. “Real-space imaging of non-collinear antiferromagnetic order with a single-spin magnetometer”. Nature 446 (2007): 522.
  19. P Wadley., et al. “Current polarity-dependent manipulation of antiferromagnetic domain”. Nature Nanotechnology 13 (2018): 362.
  20. J Stöhr., et al. “Images of the antiferromagnetic structure of a NiO (100) surface by means of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism spectromicroscopy”. Physical Review Letters 83 (1999): 1862.
  21. S Mondal and A Barman. “Laser controlled spin dynamics of ferromagnetic thin film from femtosecond to nanosecond timescale”. Physical Review Applied 10 (2018): 1.
  22. T Higo., et al. “Large magneto-optical Kerr effect and imaging of magnetic octupole domains in an antiferromagnetic metal”. Nature Photonics 12 (2018): 73.
  23. V Saidl., et al. “Optical determination of the Néel vector in a CuMnAs thin-film antiferromagnet”. Nature Photonics 11 (2017): 91.
  24. WL Roth. “Neutron and optical studies of domains in NiO”. Journal of Applied Physics 31 (1960): 2000.
  25. H Matsuyama., et al. “Microscopic imaging of Fe magnetic domains exchange coupled with those in a NiO (001) surface”. Physical Review Letters 85 (2000): 646.
  26. JY Chauleau., et al. Nature Material 16 (2017): 803.
  27. I Gray., et al. “Multi-stimuli manipulation of antiferromagnetic domains assessed by second-harmonic imaging”. Physical Review X 9 (2019): 41016.
  28. PM Oppeneer. “Lighting up antiferromagnets”. Nature Photonics 11 (2017): 74.
  29. R Schäfer and A Hubert. “A new magnetooptic effect related to non-uniform magnetization on the surface of a ferromagnet”. Physica Status Solidi 118 (1990): 271.
  30. J Xu., et al. “Imaging antiferromagnetic domains in nickel oxide thin films by optical birefringence effect”. Physical Review B 100 (2019): 134413.
  31. J Xu., et al. “Optical imaging of antiferromagnetic domains in ultrathin CoO (001) films”. New Journal of Physics 22 (2020).
  32. F Schreiber., et al. “Concurrent magneto-optical imaging and magneto-transport readout of electrical switching of insulating antiferromagnetic thin films”. Applied Physics Letters 117 (2020).
  33. H Meer., et al. “Direct imaging of current-induced antiferromagnetic switching revealing a pure thermomagnetoelastic switching mechanism in NiO”. Nano Letter 21 (2021): 114.
  34. P Němec., et al. “Efficient spin excitation via ultrafast damping-like torques in antiferromagnets”. Nature Physics 14 (2018): 229.

Citation

Citation: Sucheta Mondal. “Imaging of Antiferromagnetic Domains by Using Magneto-Optical Birefringence Effect Microscopy Technique: An Overview". Acta Scientific Applied Physics 3.6 (2023): 29-37.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2023 Sucheta Mondal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US





//