Acta Scientific Applied Physics

Review Article Volume 3 Issue 4

Calculating the Universal Gravitational Constant

James A Putnam*

Independent Researcher, Colorado, USA

*Corresponding Author: James A Putnam, Independent Researcher, Colorado, USA

Received: March 08, 2023; Published: March 24, 2023


The derivation of the equations of theoretical physics began with the introduction of Newton’s f=ma. This equation mathematically models the empirically established relationship between mass and an object’s acceleration. The equation is the beginning of theoretical physics because it introduces mass at the earliest opportunity before it was understood how to define mass. Physicists did not define mass. The historical method of that time is the correct method that should still be used today but isn’t. It is to write an equation that sets mass equal to a combination of other properties that have been previously introduced by direct empirical evidence. The property must be defined at the earliest opportunity.

Instead, physicists made a unsubstantiated theoretical decision that mass or force would need to be accepted as the third indefinable property of physics. Mass was arbitrarily chosen to be indefinable. It was accepted as the third indefinable property of physics. It was joined with the two naturally indefinable properties of length and duration What physicists inaccurately refer to as the property of time. It cannot be the property of universal time because we cannot measure universal time. We can measure duration. Length, or distance, and duration are indefinable because no properties are introduced before them. Physics begins with direct empirical measurements of length and duration.

We observe that patterns exist in the acceleration of objects. The properties of acceleration are length and duration. The units of acceleration are a combination of meter and second. That combination is (meters/second)/second. Everything we learn about the nature of the universe is learned from direct empirical evidence. These are the units of direct empirical evidence. All direct empirical evidence is communicated to us in measurements of length and duration. This is the case because charged particles located throughout the universe are accelerating. When they accelerate, they send information away from themselves in the form of photons, the particle representation of electromagnetism. Charged particles located elsewhere are hit by this wildly mixed storm of photons arriving from innumerable places, innumerable directions, and innumerable times.

This article presents the premise that since photons are the principle means by which the universe communicates with us, that the photon storm is the principal means by which fundamental unity is maintained. The universe successfully continues to exist with consistent meaningful operation. Its fundamental unity requires that it must have one cause for all effects. What appear to be multiple causes in the forms of multiple forces must be due to different aspects of a single original cause. This means that all properties that are inferred to exist must be expressible using the same terms as direct empirical evidence uses. In other words, all property units must be expressible in terms of the units of direct empirical evidence. For example, the kilogram must be expressible as some combination of meters and seconds.

Keywords: Physics; Unity; Nature; Universe; Definitions


  2. College Physics, Sears and Zemansky, 3rd. Ed., (1960).


Citation: James A Putnam. “Calculating the Universal Gravitational Constant". Acta Scientific Applied Physics 3.4 (2023): 40-44.


Copyright: © 2023 James A Putnam. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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