Acta Scientific Applied Physics

Review Article Volume 2 Issue 12

An Example of Superconductor, According New Axioms and Laws

Valentina Markova*

Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria

*Corresponding Author: Valentina Markova, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria.

Received: November 27, 2022; Published: November 30, 2022


The article use brand new theory as Theory of New Axioms and Laws. It changes the Classic Field Theory to a much more general theory that consists of 2 new axioms and 8 laws. It was described from previous works of the same author. In this report is used only 1 axioms and 5 laws.It is known that Maxwell’s laws (1864) are based on a single axiom [1]. It a closed loop leads to evenly movement (with constant speed) of a vector E: div rot E = 0. The author change this axiom with a new one, according which the movement in an open loop or vortex leads to unevenly movement (with variable speed) of a vector E:div rot E ≠ 0, or div vor E ≠ 0 for vortex [2]. The subsequent results are: the evenly movement is replaced with unevenly movement which can be decelerating or accelerating; in 2D it exists a transverse (cross)vortex and in 3D it exists a longitudinal vortex; the cross vortex in 2D is transformed to a longitudinal vortex in 3D through a special transformation Δ1; the longitudinal vortexin 3D is transformed to a cross vortex in 2D through special transformation Δ2; decelerating vortex emits free cross vortices to the environment that are called “free energy”; accelerating vortex sucks in the same ones free cross vortices and so on. The vector E is not a simple. It turns to be a complex vector: E=A+iV, E=V+ iA or E=-A-iV, E= -V- iA. It can has or amplitude A in a real part, or velocity V as a real part. Cross vortices can form two kinds vortices: a vortex that is generated by amplitude A and the vortex that is generated by velocity V. Each of these may be accelerating or decelerating. But both of them are generators. They are prototypes of material particles. Due to the suction of cross vortices by the accelerating vortex the temperature decreases and due to the emitting of cross vortices by the decelerating field the temperature in environment increases. Inside of the conductor the velocity of Electromagnetic field is constant.But on the periphery it decelerates because of resistance to the wall of conductor. This report offers a specific application of the above theory. In order to understand the nature of superconductivity we have to understand first the nature of conductivity by conductor. Then we can very easily model a superconductor by constructing it as orthogonal to the conductor. This report proposes to mimic superconductivity at normal temperature. The method involves inserting several cylinders of different materials into each other so as to obtain an accelerating electric current with a direction from the periphery to the center.

Keywords: Superconductor; Temperature; Velocity


  1. Landau LD and EM Lifshitz. “The Classical Theory of Fields (Volume 2 of A Course of Theoretical Physics)”. 4 Edition., Butterworth-Heinemann (1975).
  2. Markova V. “The other axioms (Monograph, Book 2)”. Nautilus, Sofia (2005).
  3. Markova V. “New axioms and structures”. Fundamental Journal of Modern Physics 1 (2015): 15-24.
  4. Markova V. “Extended Field Theory. New Axioms, Laws and consequences”. IOSR-JAP, Journal of Applied Physics 9.2 (2017).
  5. Markova V. “A generator using a tube of longitudinal accelerating open vortices nested one inside the other for positive feedback”. 3th International Conference on High Energy Physics, Rome, Italy, 11-12 (2017).
  6. Markova V. “About the new axioms and laws”. 5th International Conference on Theoretical and Applied Physics, Vienna, Austria, July 02-03 (2018).
  7. Markova V. “Modeling of the superconductivity by using accelerating longitudinal vortices”. 3rd International Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Rome, Italy, October 22-23 (2018).
  8. Markova V. “Superconductivity, According to the New Axiom and Laws”. International Journal of Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Research (IJRAMR) 7.6 (2020): 5954-5962.


Citation: Valentina Markova. “An Example of Superconductor, According New Axioms and Laws". Acta Scientific Applied Physics 2.12 (2022): 27-37.


Copyright: © 2022 Valentina Markova. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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