Acta Scientific Women's Health (ISSN: 2582-3205)

Research Article Volume 3 Issue 8

Women and Urinary Tract Infection

R Nambu Mahalakshmi* and R Thillai Raj Kumar

Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Raja College of Arts and Science, Raja Nagar, Kunjarvalasai, Tamil Nadu, India

*Corresponding Author: R Nambu Mahalakshmi, Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Raja College of Arts and Science, Raja Nagar, Kunjarvalasai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Received: June 21, 2021; Published: July 19, 2021

Abstract

Women face health problems in day to day life. One of the serious issues is urinary tract infection. Urinary infection is very common, but women get more infection than men. UTI caused by the organisms cause serious urinary inflammation. The major causative organisms are E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis etc. Today, all age group of women have urinary infection. Women can get easily infection than men through improper hygiene, sexual activity, maternal time, menstrual cycle, and menopause. In this study, frequently we found that those having above 40 age group women have got more infection with E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Few peoples were infected by mold. In this primary investigation, we isolated clinical pathogens from normal urine samples by plate count method. In macroscopic observation we found cloudiness or turbidity, also we performed basic tests like glucose, ketone bodies, nitrite, bile deposits etc. In microscopic studies, like WBCs, RBCs, Epithelial cells, Hyaline cast, Waxy cast. Next, the studies focus on antimicrobial susceptibility test.

Keywords: Antimicrobial; Urinary Infection; Bile; Ketone Bodies; Clinical Pathogens

References

  1. Shill MC., et al. “Prevalence of Uropathogens in Diabetic Patients and Their Corresponding Resistance Pattern: Results of a Survey Conducted at Diagnostic Centers in Dhaka, Bangladesh”. Oman Medical Journal 25 (2010): 282-285.
  2. Gonzalez CM and Schaeffer AJ. “Treatment of urinary tract infection: what’s old, what’s new and what works”. World Journal of Urology 17 (1999): 372-382.
  3. Stamm WE and Hooton TM. “Management of urinary tract infections in adults”. The New England Journal of Medicine 329 (1993): 1328-1334.
  4. Robinson JL., et al. “Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee”. Paediatrics and Child Health 19 (2014): 315-319.
  5. Vila J., et al. “Are Quinolone-Resistant Uropathogenic Eschericia coli Less Virulent?” The Journal of Infectious Diseases 186 (2002): 1039-1042.
  6. Ron EZ. “Distribution and Evolution of Virulence Factors in Septicemic Eschericia coli”. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 300 (2010): 367-370.
  7. Lo E., et al. “Strategies to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections in acute care hospitals: 2014 update”. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 35 (2014): :464-479.
  8. Chenoweth CE., et al. “Diagnosis, management, and prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections”. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 28 (2014): 105-119.
  9. Onu GA., et al. “Isolation, identification and characterization of urinary tract infections bacteria and the effect of different antibiotics”. Journal of Natural Sciences Research 3 (2013): : 150-159.
  10. Gonzalez CM and Schaeffer AJ. “Treatment of urinary tract infection: What's old, what's new, and what works”. World Journal of Urology 17 (1999): 372-382.
  11. Liang FX., et al. “Cellular basis of urothelial squamous metaplasia roles of lineage heterogeneity and cell replacement”. Journal of Cell Biology 171 (2005): : 835-844.
  12. Foxman B. “Epidemiology of urinary tract infections: Incidence, morbidity, and economic costs”. American Journal of Medicine (2003): 113.
  13. Weichhart T., et al. “Current concepts of molecular defence mechanisms operative during urinary tract infection”. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 38 (2008): : 29-38.
  14. Williams G and Craig JC. “Long‐term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children”. Cochrane Library: Cochrane Reviews 3 (2011).
  15. Balakrishnan Hill V. “Dealing with urinary tract infections”. The Pharmaceutical Journal 287 (2010): 687-690.
  16. Ronald A. “The etiology of urinary tract infection: Traditional and emerging pathogens”. Dis Mon 49 (2003): : 71-82.
  17. Stamm WE and Hooton TM. “Management of urinary tract infections in adults”. The New England Journal of Medicine 329 (1993): 1328-1334.
  18. Kibret M and Abera B. “Prevalence and antibiogram of bacterial isolates from urinary tract infections at dessie health research laboratory, Ethiopia”. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 4 (2014): : 164-168.
  19. Farajnia S., et al. “Causative agents and antimicrobial susceptibilities of urinary tract infections in the northwest of Iran”. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 13 (2009): :140-144.
  20. Hooton TM. “Practice guidelines for urinary tract infection in the era of managed care”. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 11 (1999): 241-245.
  21. Gentilini E., et al. “Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Argentina”. Journal of Dairy Science 85 (2002): 1913-1917.
  22. Hooton T., et al. “International Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis and Pyelonephritis in Women: A 2010 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases”. Urinary Catheter Guidelines•CID Clinical Infectious Diseases 50 (2010): 625.
  23. Gupta K., et al. “International Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis and Pyelonephritis in Women: A 2010 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases”. Clinical Practice Guidelines•CID 52 (2011): 103.
  24. Abbo LM and Hooton TM. “Antimicrobial Stewardship and Urinary Tract Infections”. Antibiotics 3 (2014): 174-192.
  25. Grabe M., et al. “Guidelines on Urological Infections”. European Association of Urology, Arnhem (2013).
  26. Spoorenberg V., et al. “Appropriate Antibiotic Use for Patients with Complicated urinary Tract Infections in 38 Dutch Hospital Departments: A Retrospective Study of Variation and Determinants”. BMC Infectious Diseases 15 (2015): 505.
  27. Schneider PF and Riley TV. “Staphylococcus saprophyticus urinary tract infections: Epidemiological data from Western Australia”. European Journal of Epidemiology 12 (1996): 51-54.

Citation

Citation: R Nambu Mahalakshmi and R Thillai Raj Kumar. “Women and Urinary Tract Infection". Acta Scientific Women's Health 3.8 (2021): 27-31.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2021 R Nambu Mahalakshmi and R Thillai Raj Kumar. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.008

Indexed In





News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 10, 2022.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US