Acta Scientific Agriculture (ASAG)(ISSN: 2581-365X)

Review Article Volume 5 Issue 7

An Overview of Chicken Reproductive Performance and its Challenges at High-Altitude of Leh-Ladakh Region: Review

Deachan Chuskit and Swati*

DRDO-Defence Institute of High-Altitude Research (DIHAR), Leh, UT-Ladakh, India

*Corresponding Author: Swati, DRDO-Defence Institute of High-Altitude Research (DIHAR), Leh, UT-Ladakh, India.

Received: April 19, 2023; Published: May 27, 2023


Poultry industry is rapidly increasing worldwide and India is seen as a prominent market for both chicken broiler and chicken egg production. There are number of states in India, especially from its southern part which play an important role in increasing countries GDP from the poultry industry however, the scenario is still very gloomy from Leh-Ladakh region. Ladakh comes under high-altitude region which is around 3500 meter above mean sea level, characterized by harsh environment i.e. low oxygen, low atmospheric pressure, low temperature, high wind velocity followed by extreme winter. This stressful condition hinders the health and productivity of poultry chicken. The purpose of the present review is to overview the overall reproduction and productive phenomenon of hen and challenges of poultry farming at high-altitude. Emphasis is given on how the production performance of chicken can further be increased at such stressful environmental condition which will be very helpful to the local progressive farmers interested in poultry backyard farming in this region in future.

Keywords: Chicken; Reproduction; Productivity; High-Altitude; Challenges; Ladakh


  1. West Barbara and Ben-Xiong Zhou. "Did chickens go north? New evidence for domestication”. Journal of Archaeological Science5 (1988): 515-533.
  2. Sawai Hiromi., et al. “The origin and genetic variation of domestic chickens with special reference to junglefowls Gallus gallus and G. varius”. PloS One5 (2010): e10639.
  3. Sharma Deepak., et al. “Genetic diversity among chicken breeds estimated through randomly amplified polymorphic DNA”. Animal Biotechnology2 (2001): 111-120.
  4. Ali Mohd Mujahed. "Emerging prospective of Indian livestock: A study on poultry industry”. Asian Journal of Management Science 1 (2015): 33-39.
  5. Chatterjee RN and U Rajkumar. "An overview of poultry production in India”. Indian Journal of Animal Health2 (2015): 89-108.
  6. Islam MM., et al. “Scenario of livestock and poultry in India and their contribution to national economy”. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology3 (2016): 956-965.
  7. Rajkumar U., et al. “Comparative evaluation of carcass traits and meat quality in native Aseel chickens and commercial broilers”. British Poultry Science3 (2016): 339-347.
  8. Pathak PK and BG Nath. "Rural poultry farming with improved breed of backyard chicken”. Journal of World's Poultry Research 1 (2013): 24-27.
  9. Rajkumar U., et al. “Characterization of indigenous Aseel chicken breed for morphological, growth, production, and meat composition traits from India”. Poultry Science7 (2017): 2120-2126.
  10. Chatterjee RN., et al. “Breeding poultry for improved input use efficiency and nutrient quality of products”. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding (2019): 204-207.
  11. Ottinger Mary Ann and Murray R Bakst. "Endocrinology of the avian reproductive system”. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery(1995): 242-250.
  12. Johnson PA., et al. “The domestic chicken: causes and consequences of an egg a day”. Poultry Science4 (2015): 816-820.
  13. Liu HY and CQ Zhang. "Effects of daidzein on messenger ribonucleic acid expression of gonadotropin receptors in chicken ovarian follicles”. Poultry Science3 (2008): 541-545.
  14. Nassar FS., et al. “Ovarian morphology and egg quality traits of Egyptian selected strain for egg production compared with commercial laying strains”. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science19 (2017): 683-688.
  15. Zhu Guiyu., et al. “Expression and regulation of MMP1, MMP3, and MMP9 in the chicken ovary in response to gonadotropins, sex hormones, and TGFB1”. Biology of Reproduction3 (2014): 57-61.
  16. Blendea Alexandra., et al. “Anatomohistological study regarding the ovary and oviduct in different age groups in the chicken (Gallus domesticus)”. Veterinary Medicine Journal8 (2012): 18-27.
  17. Rahman Md Anisur. "An Introduction to Morphology of the Reproductive System and Anatomy of Hen s Egg”. Journal of Life and Earth Science8 (2013): 1-10.
  18. Mishra Birendra., et al. “Genetic and hormonal regulation of egg formation in the oviduct of laying hens”. Poultry-an Advanced Learning. Intech Open (2019).
  19. Rahman Mohammad., et al. “Mechanism of chalaza formation in quail eggs”. Cell and Tissue Research330 (2007): 535-543.
  20. Joyner CJ., et al. “The effect of age on egg production in the domestic hen”. General and Comparative Endocrinology3 (1987): 331-336.
  21. Perić Lidija., et al. “The effect of storage and age of hens on the quality of table eggs”. Advanced Research in Life Sciences1 (2017): 64-67.
  22. Al-Batshan HA., et al. “Duodenal calcium uptake, femur ash, and eggshell quality decline with age and increase following molt”. Poultry science10 (1994): 1590-1596.
  23. MALAU‐, et al. “Factors affecting egg production and layer bird mortality in private poultry farms in the subhumid zone of Nigeria”. Animal Science Journal74.3 (2003): 239-242.
  24. Li D., et al. “Effects of cold stress and ammonia concentration on productive performance and egg quality traits of laying hens”. Animals12 (2020): 2252.
  25. Alves FMS., et al. “Impact of exposure to cold on layer production”. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science14 (2012): 223-226.
  26. Englmaierová M., et al. “Effects of laying hens housing system on laying performance, egg quality characteristics, and egg microbial contamination Original Paper”. Czech Journal of Animal Science8 (2014).
  27. Anderson KE and AW Adams. "Effects of cage versus floor rearing environments and cage floor mesh size on bone strength, fearfulness, and production of single comb white leghorn hens”. Poultry Science8 (1994): 1233-1240.
  28. Netto Daniel Araújo., et al. “Production of laying hens in different rearing systems under hot weather”. Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences40 (2018).
  29. Dawson Alistair., et al. “Photoperiodic control of seasonality in birds”. Journal of Biological Rhythms4 (2001): 365-380.
  30. Saleh DM., et al. “Effect of Number of Spermatozoa, Oviduct Condition and Timing of Artificial Insemination on Fertility and Fertile Period of Kampung Rooster Spermatozoa”. Animal Production1 (2012).
  31. Kumar Vinod and Sangeeta Rani. "Light sensitivity of the photoperiodic response system in higher vertebrates: wavelength and intensity effects”. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology11 (1999): 1053-1064.
  32. Archer GS. "How does red light affect layer production, fear, and stress?" Poultry Science1 (2019): 3-8.
  33. Baxter Mikayla and Grégoy Y Bédécarrats. "Evaluation of the impact of light source on reproductive parameters in laying hens housed in individual cages”. The Journal of Poultry Science2 (2019): 148-158.
  34. Ramsay SL and DC Houston. "The effect of dietary amino acid composition on egg production in blue tits”. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences1404 (1998): 1401-1405.
  35. Windisch W., et al. “Use of phytogenic products as feed additives for swine and poultry”. Journal of Animal Science14 (2008): E140-E148.
  36. Canogullari S., et al. “The effects of dietary garlic powder on performance, egg yolk and serum cholesterol concentrations in laying quails”. Czech Journal of Animal Science7 (2010): 286-293.
  37. Lake PE. "Artificial insemination in poultry and the storage of semen-A re-appraisal”. World's Poultry Science Journal2 (1967): 111-132.
  38. Kharayat NS., et al. “Significance of artificial insemination in poultry”. Research and Reviews: Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology1 (2016): 1-5.
  39. Mohan J., et al. “History of artificial insemination in poultry, its components and significance”. World's Poultry Science Journal3 (2018): 475-488.
  40. Brillard Jean-Pierre. "Practical aspects of fertility in poultry”. Avian Biology Research1-2 (2009): 41-45.
  41. Burrows WH and JP Quinn. "The collection of spermatozoa from the domestic fowl and turkey”. Poultry Science1 (1937): 19-24.
  42. Aisha K and UA Zain. "Artificial Insemination in Poultry”. Department of Pathology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan(2010).
  43. Li M and Zhao C. "Study on Tibetan Chicken embryonic adaptability to chronic hypoxia by revealing differential gene expression in heart tissue”. Science in China Series C: Life Sciences3 (2009): 284-295.
  44. Yutaka T., et al. “Calcium carbonate supplementation to chorioallantoic membranes improves hatchability in shell-less chick embryo culture”. Journal of bioscience and bioengineering3 (2021): 314-319.
  45. Sheikh TM., et al. “The effect of photoperiod, light intensity and wattage power on performance of Dandarawi chicken”. Lucrari stiintifice. Seria Zootehnie-Universitatea de Stiinte Agricole si Medicina Veterinara Ion Ionescu de la Brad (Romania)(2011).
  46. Haghighi Mehdi., et al. “Effect of sex ratio on the production and hatchability of broiler breeder flock”. Journal of World's Poultry Research 6 (2016): 14-17.
  47. Ani AO and ME Nnamani. "The physical and laying characteristics of Golden sex-linked hens under the humid tropical environment”. Pakistan Journal of nutrition11 (2011): 1041-1047.
  48. Romanov MN and Weigend S. "Analysis of genetic relationships between various populations of domestic and jungle fowl using microsatellite markers”. Poultry Science8 (2001): 1057-1063.
  49. Gous RM. "Genetic progress in the poultry industry”. South African Journal of Animal Science3 (1986): 127-133.


Citation: Deachan Chuskit and Swati. “An Overview of Chicken Reproductive Performance and its Challenges at High-Altitude of Leh-Ladakh Region: Review". Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 5.7 (2023): 71-79.


Copyright: © 2023 Deachan Chuskit and Swati. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.008

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US