Influence of Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium) and Avocado (Persea americana) Leaf Meal on
Performance, Carcass and Relative Organ Characteristics of Broiler Chickens
Muyiwa Adegbenro*, Akinlolu O Ayeni, Elizabeth S Oyedokun, Oyinyechi E Dick, Ifeoluwa O Olaseinde, Taiwo O Oladayo and Johnson O Agbede
Department of Animal Production and Health, The Federal University of
Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Muyiwa Adegbenro, Department of Animal Production and Health, The Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.
April 03, 2023; Published: April 30, 2023
This study evaluates the effects of composite leaf meal from two leaves on the performance of broiler chickens when used as a supplement. Fresh Gliricidia sepium and Persea americana leaves were harvested, air-dried, and milled to produce leaf meals and then mixed in ratio 1:1 to form a composite leaf meal of Gliricidia–Avocado leaf meal (GALM). A basal diet was formulated and divided into four portions, the composite leaf meal was then added to these portions at 0, 4, 8, and 12g/kg and designated diets I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Two hundred (200) day-old broiler chicks of Arbor acre breed were randomly allotted to the four (4) dietary treatments replicated five (5) times with ten (10) chicks per replicate in a Completely Randomized Design. The respective diets were fed to the chicks ad libitum from 1 – 42 days. All data collected were subjected to analysis of variance using SPSS version 25 package. Results showed that final weight and total weight gain were significantly (P < 0.05) influence among the parameters measured. Birds fed the test diets were observed to be more improved for all parameters measured than those fed the control diet. All the carcass and relative organs parameters were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected except the spleen, which was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in birds fed diet III (1.28 ± 0.11g/kg) than those fed other diets. GALM supplemented up to 12g/kg level in broiler chicken diet improves the growth performance characteristics and muscle development.
Keywords: Composite Leaf Meal; Supplement; Carcass; Relative Organ Characteristics
- Adeyemi OO., et al. “Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of leaves of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae)”. Fitoterapia 73 (2002): 375-380.
- Andremont A. “Consequences antibiotic therapy to the intestinal ecosystem”. Annales Françaises d’Anes- thésie et de Réanimation 19 (2000): 395-402.
- Asaolu MF., et al. “Evaluation of In-Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extracts of Persea americana and Cnidosculus aconitifolius”. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition (2010): 1074-1077.
- Atteh JO. “Principles and Practices of Feed Manufacturing; Adlek Printers, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria (2004): 30-36.
- Bai Xue-Feng. “Nutritional evaluation and utilization of quality protein maize. Zhong Dan 9409 in broiler feed, MSc Thesis, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Beijing 1000881, PR China (2002).
- Chen GL., et al. “Antioxidant Activities and Contents of Free, Esterified and Insoluble-Bound Phenolics in 14 Subtropical Fruit Leaves Collected from the South of China”. Journal of Functional Foods 30 (2017): 290-302.
- Fasuyi AO., et al. “Tropical composite leaf meals as alternative protein supplement in broiler starter diets, bionutritional evaluation”. Journal of Central European Agriculture 9 (2008): 23-24.
- Gomez S., et al. “Combination of an enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast and yeast culture with a direct-fed microbial in the feeds of broiler chickens”. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 25 (2012): 665-673.
- Hashemi SR and Davoodi H. “Phytogenics as new class of feed additive in poultry industry”. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 9 (2010): 2295-2304.
- Islam KM., et al. “Humic acid substances in animal agriculture”. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 4 (2005): 126-134.
- Jiménez N., et al. “Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of commonly used anti-inflammatory medicinal plants in Colombia”. Industrial Crops and Products Journal 70 (2015): 272-279.
- Karimi A., et al. “Effects of level and source of oregano leaf in starter diets for broiler chicks”. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 19 (2010): 137-145.
- Kohanski MA., et al. “A common mechanism of cellular death induced by bactericidal antibiotics. Cell. Elsevier 130 (2007): 797-810.
- Kola Phani K., et al. “Evaluation of In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-inflammatory Activity of Aqueous Extract of Gliricidia sepium Flowers in Rats”. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research3 (2014): 477-481.
- Kosińska A., et al. “Phenolic Compound Profiles and Antioxidant Capacity of Persea americana Mill. Peels and Seeds of Two Varieties”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60 (2012): 4613-4619.
- Mariana RA., et al. “Inclusion of the Moringa oleifera leaf on immunological constants in broiler chickens”. Abanico Veterinario 8 (2018): 68-74.
- Mustafa MAG. “Effect of eucalyptus leaf and its supplementation with diet on broiler performance, microbial and physiological statues to alleviate cold stress”. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science 50 (2019): 953-963.
- Nigerian Meteorological Agency. Archives 1 (2014): 1-2.
- Rani B., et al. “Ecological Basis of Agroforestry”. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group 44 (2008).
- Robert G. “The Anatomy of Domestic Animals. First Edition, The Macmillan Company, India (1977).
- Sarojini TR. “Modern Biology 3rd edition”. Africana First Publisher Limited. Nigeria (2005): 295 313. SPSS 2011. Statistical package for social scientists. Version 20.
- Van der Fels-Klerx HJ., et al. “Farm factors associated with the use of antibiotics in pig production”. Journal of Animal Science 89 (2011): 1922-1929.
- Vondruskova H., et al. “Alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in prevention of diarrhea in weaned piglets: a review”. VetMed Resource 55 (2010): 199-224.
- Yamassaki FT., et al. “Use and Obtaining Extracts of Leaves of Persea americana As Antioxidants and Preservatives. Patent Registered in “Instituto Nacional Da Propriedade Industrial” (INPI) by Federal University of Paraná, Process number: BR1020130287431, deposit date: 11/07/2013, Paraná, Brazil (2013).