Serum Biochemical Effects of Alstonia boonei Leaf Extract Administered against
Coccidiosis in Broilers
Odafe-Shalome GIO* and Osa UGS
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin,
*Corresponding Author: Odafe-Shalome GIO, Department of Animal Science,
Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin-city, Nigeria.
March 14, 2023; Published: April 20, 2023
A cheap cost-effective herbal alternative to coccidiostats was prepared by dissolving pre-weighed blended leaves of Alstonia boonei in ethanol-water (70:30) to extract the bioactive components. The efficacy/potency of the hydro-alcoholic extract against coccidiosis were then determined in 100 broiler chicks, in a completely randomized design (CRD)! The leaf extract was administered twice daily, to groups of birds at different concentrations (0ml/4L, 5mL/4L and 10mL/4L) and their biochemical effects were examined at 8th weeks old. The concentrations of serum enzymes - alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and bilirubin (CBIL) were not significantly different (P > 0.05) between test groups and the minor control (non-treated birds) indicating healthy liver and kidney functions. There were no significant treatment related effects (P > 0.05) on blood creatinine, urea, bicarbonate, K+ and Cl-, whereas Na+ concentration was affected significantly (p < 0.05). Except with the main control (embazin treated birds), the mean levels of alkaline phosphatase were non-significantly different (P > 0.05) between the herbal test groups. There were variations in serum albumin levels between the different experimental groups but each value fell within the normal range (3.0 - 5.5g/dL). The mean concentrations (mg/dL) of Total bilirubin ranged from 0.12 in embarzin treated birds, to 0.20 in non-treated birds. There were no symptoms of coccidiosis in the different groups of alstonia extract and embarzin treated birds indicating efficacy of the extract against the disease. The concentrations of blood electrolytes and serum enzymes were not adversely affected by the extract! And there were no mortalities during the trial period.
Keywords: Antioxidant; Phytoremediation; Sewage Sludge; Vetiver
- Alfaro DM., et al. “Use of Yucca schidlgera extract in broiler diets and its effects on performance results obtained with different coccidiosis control methods”. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 16 (2007): 248-254.
- Alien PC. “Anticoccidial effects of xanthohumol”. Avian Diseases 51 (2007): 21-26.
- Asuzu IU and Anaga AO. “Pharmacological screening of the aqueous extract of AIstonia boonei stems bark, Fitoter 63 (1991): 411-417.
- Campbell TW. “Selected blood biochemical tests used to detect the presence of hepatic disease in birds”. Procceding Association of Avian Veterinarians (1986): 43-51.
- Egedege GIO. “Chemical characterization, Nutritional and Toxicological evaluation of the Styzilobium, Mucuna sloanei ITMU, in wistar albino rats”. Doctoral Thesis, University of Benin, Benin-City, Nigeria (2014).
- Elisabetsky E and Costa-Campos L. “The alkaloid alstonine: a review of its pharmacological properties”. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 3 (2006): 39-48.
- Finco DR. “Kidney function in chemical biochemistry of domestic animals, 4th Edition”. (Ed. Jiro J, Kaneko) Academic Press Inc, California (1989): 496-542.
- Ganong WF. “Review of medical physiology. 21st edition, McGraw Hill. Companies Inc, New York (2003): 316-318.
- Gurib-Fakim A. “Medicinal plants: traditions of yesterday and drugs tomorrow”. Molecular Aspects of Medicine 27 (2006): 1-93.
- Gbadamosi IT., et al. “Phytochemical screening and proximate analysis of eight ethno-botanicals used as anti-malaria remedies in Ibadan, Nigeria”. Journal of Applied Biosciences 44 (2011): 2967-2971.
- Harris ED. “Biochemical facts behind the definition and properties of metabolites”. Publication of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Faculty of Nutrition, Texas A and M University, USA (2011): P2.
- Imasuen JA., et al. “Responses of broiler chickens fed varying levels of dietary supplement of Telfaria occcidentalis (Fluted pumpkin”. Asian Journal of Animal Sciences (2014).
- Jang IJ., et al. “Anti-coccidial effect of green tea-based diets against Eimeria maxima”. Veterinary Parasitology 144 (2007): 172-175.
- John-Prosper KA., et al. “A Review of the ethnobotany and pharmacological importance of Alstonia boonei, De Wild (Apocynaceae) Article ID 587160 (2012).
- Oigangbe ON., et al. “Insecticidal activity of the medicinal plant, Alstonia boonei, De wild, against Sesemian calanistis. Hampson”. Journal of Zhejiang University. Science 10 (2007): 752-755.
- Okereke CO., et al. “Growth, performance, haematology and serum biochemistry of broiler chickens fed Taro Cocoyam, Colocasia esculentum, peel meal as feed ingredient”. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science 3 (2009): 334-341.
- Okpo SO., et al. “Anti-inflamatory activity of the methanolic leaf extract of Alstonia boonei”. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science 1 (2012).
- Olajide AO., et al. “Studies on the anti-inflamatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties of Alstonia boonei stem bark”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 71 (2000): 179-186.
- Olawumi SO., et al. “Comparison of Strain and feed withdrawal duration on growth haematological indices and serum biochemistry of broiler chickens in finisher phase”. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science 3 (2019): 274-280.
- Opoola E., et al. “Effect of Spirulina platensis supplementation on performance, haematological and serum biochemical profiles of broiler chickens reared under tropical environment”. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science 3 (2019): 352-360.
- Raji YI., et al. “Reproductive functions in male rats treated with methonolic extract of Alstonia boonei stem bark”. African Journal of Biomedical Research 8 (2005): 105-111.
- Research Animal Resources, University. University of Minnesota, USA ().
- Taiwo OB., et al. “Activity of stem bark of Alstonia boonei, de wild, on human complement and polymorph nuclear leucocytes”. JE 17 (1998): 13-15.
- Tewari AK and Maharana BR. “Control of poultry coccidiosis: Changing trends”. Journal of Parasitic Diseases 35 (2011): 10-70.
- Traditional Medicine Strategy 2002-2005, Geneva, World Health Organization (2002).