Molecular Characterization of Emerging Lumpy Skin Disease Virus in Western Uttar Pradesh, India
Surendra Upadhyay1, Saumya Jaiswal1, Tanya Malik1, Vikas Jaiswal2, NN Mohanty3, Vikas Gupta3, Anu Rahal4 and Amit Kumar1
1Division of Animal Biotechnology, College of Biotechnology, SVPUAT, Meerut, India
2Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Sciences, SVPUAT, Meerut, India
3CCS- National Institute of Animal Health, Baghpat, India
4Division of Animal Health, ICAR-CIRG, Mathura, India
*Corresponding Author: Amit Kumar, Division of Animal Biotechnology, College of Biotechnology, SVPUAT, Meerut, India.
April 04, 2023; Published: April 18, 2023
Context: Lumpy skin disease, a transboundary disease recently spread across the India during 2022-2023 and caused unexpected mortality in the range of 2-10% in different states. It imposed a severe economic stress on the livestock based rural economy and adversely affected the export of animal based products. Government of India tried to prevent it by vaccinating more than 87 million animals with existing Goat pox vaccine. However, there are reports of infection in spite of vaccination. These might be because of variation of strain prevalent in particular state.
Objective: It is imperative to study the virus involved in the infection in particular state due to climatic and geographical variation. With this objective, the present study involved the molecular characterization and phylogeny analysis of LSD virus prevalent in Uttar Pradesh to ascertain any variation in virus.
Results: Samples collected from the clinical cases revealed the presence of LSD virus with WAHO recommended PCR based amplification. The further validation of the virus with amplification of ORF011 encoding G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) led to phylogeny study of the virus.
Conclusions: The virus of UP aligned with other reported viruses of country and also showed highest resemblance with the reported viruses of the neighbouring countries like Myanmar, Nepal, Bangladesh and china.
Keywords: Lumpy Skin Disease Virus; Phylogeny; Cattle; Uttar Pradesh
- Lojkić Ivana., et al. “Complete genome sequence of a lumpy skin disease virus strain isolated from the skin of a vaccinated animal". Genome Announcements22 (2018): e00482-518.
- CFSPH, The Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Ames, IA, USA, (2008).
- Tuppurainen E., et al. “Lumpy skin disease-a manual for veterinarians”. FAO Anim. Prod. Health Manual., 20 (2017): 7-46.
- Morris JPA. Pseudo-Urticaria; Annual Report 12; Northern Rhodesia Department of Animal Health: Northern Rhodesia, Zambia, (1930).
- Tuppurainen ES and Oura CA. “Review: Lumpy skin disease: An emerging threat to Europe, the Middle East and Asia”. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 59 (2012): 40-48.
- Sudhakar SB., et al. “Lumpy skin disease (LSD) outbreaks in cattle in Odisha state, India in August 2019: Epidemiological features and molecular studies”. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases6 (2020): 2408-2422.
- Animal Disease Outbreaks and News - Asia 189 (2022).
- Azeem S., et al. “Lumpy skin disease is expanding its geographic range: A challenge for Asian livestock management and food security”. The Veterinary Journal 279 (2021): 105785.
- Koirala P., et al. “Molecular Characterization of the 2020 Outbreak of Lumpy Skin Disease in Nepal”. Microorganisms 10 (2022): 539.
- Ireland DC and Binepal YS. “Improved detection of capripoxvirus in biopsy samples by PCR”. Journal of Virological Methods 1 (1998): 1-7.
- Kumar N., et al. “Isolation and characterization of lumpy skin disease virus from cattle in India”. PLoS One 1 (2021): e0241022.
- Tuppurainen ESM., et al. “Review: Capripoxvirus Diseases: Current Status and Opportunities for Control”. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 64 (2017): 729-745.
- Tulman ER., et al. “The genomes of sheeppox and goatpox viruses”. Journal of Virology 12 (2002): 6054-6061.
- Biswas S., et al. “Extended sequencing of vaccine and wild-type capripoxvirus isolates provides insights into genes modulating virulence and host range”. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases1 (2020): 80-97.
- Ratyotha K., et al. “Lumpy skin disease: A newly emerging disease in Southeast Asia”. Veterinary World12 (2022): 2764-2771.
- Kononova S., et al. “A lumpy skin disease virus which underwent a recombination event demonstrates more aggressive growth in primary cells and cattle than the classical field isolate”. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2020): 1-7.
- Le Goff C., et al. “Capripoxvirus G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor: a host-range gene suitable for virus animal origin discrimination”. Journal of General Virology8 (2009): 1967-1977.
- Gelaye E., et al. “Capripox disease in Ethiopia: genetic differences between field isolates and vaccine strain, and implications for vaccination failure”. Antiviral Research 119 (2015): 28-35.
- Bedeković T., et al. “Detection of lumpy skin disease virus in skin lesions, blood, nasal swabs and milk following preventive vaccination”. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases2 (2018): 491-496.
- Shumilova I., et al. “A Recombinant Vaccine-like Strain of Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Causes Low-Level Infection of Cattle through Virus-Inoculated Feed”. Pathogens 11 (2022): 920.
- Sprygin A., et al. “Analysis and insights into recombination signals in lumpy skin disease virus recovered in the field”. PLoS ONE 13 (2018): e0207480.
- Haegeman A., et al. “The Importance of Quality Control of LSDV Live Attenuated Vaccines for Its Safe Application in the Field”. Vaccines 9 (2021): 1019.
- Sprygin A., et al. “Evidence of vaccine strains of lumpy skin disease virus recombining with vaccine strains, causing disease”. PLoS ONE 15 (2020): e0232584.