CRISPR Genome Editing Technology to Revolutionize Aquaculture and Fisheries
Harinivas Manthira Moorthi, Allan Amalan Jeffrin P and Phibi Philip
Institute of Fisheries Biotechnology, Tamil Nadu Dr. J. Jayalalithaa Fisheries University OMR campus, Chennai, India
*Corresponding Author: Phibi Philip Naduvathu, Institute of Fisheries Biotechnology, Tamil Nadu Dr. J. Jayalalithaa Fisheries University OMR campus, Chennai, India.
December 28, 2022; Published: January 27, 2023
Aquaculture is rapidly replacing wild fish with farmed fish as the principal source of seafood in human diets. Diseases, reduced viability, fertility decline, poor growth, farmed fish escape into wild, and environmental pollution are the major issues faced by the sector. The commercialization of AquaAdvantage salmon and CRISPR/Cas9-developed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) initiated using of genetic engineering and genome editing methods, such as CRISPR/Cas, as potential solutions to overcome the challenges. Disease resistance, sterility, and improved growth are among the future features being developed in many fish species. CRISPR/Cas is less expensive, simpler, and more precise than existing genome editing technologies, and it can be employed as a new breeding method in fisheries and aquaculture to address major difficulties. Furthermore, unlike transgenesis, which introduces foreign genes into the host genome and thus alleviates major public safety concerns, CRISPR/Cas genome editing rapidly introduces favourable changes by disrupting genes with targeted minor changes. Although CRISPR/Cas technology has enormous potential, there are a number of technical hurdles as well as regulatory and public issues involving its usage in fisheries and aquaculture. Nonetheless, the exciting point in the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing is that two CRISPR-edited fish, namely, red sea bream and tiger puffer developed by the Kyoto-based startup, have received approval and are now available for purchase, while another fish, FLT-01 Nile tilapia developed by AquaBounty, is not classified as a genetically modified organism regulatory. However, it is still a long way from revolutionizing and becoming a viable commercial aquaculture breeding technology for aquaculture-important features and species.
Keywords: CRISPR/Cas; Aquaculture; Gene Editing; Growth; Transgenesis
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