Sero-Epidemiological Study of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) in Bovine of South Gujarat
Dharmeshkumar Rameshbhai Patel1*, IH Kalyani2 and PM Makwana1
1Assistant Professor Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Vanbandhu College of
Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, NAU campus, Kamdhenu University (KU), Navsari, Gujarat State, India
2Professor and Head, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Vanbandhu College of
Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, NAU campus, Kamdhenu University (KU), Navsari, Gujarat State
*Corresponding Author:Dharmeshkumar Rameshbhai Patel, Assistant Professor Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Vanbandhu College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, NAU campus, Kamdhenu University (KU), Navsari, Gujarat State, India.
December 19, 2022; Published: January 27, 2023
A study conducted at Vanbandhu College of Veterinary Science, Kamdhenu University, Navsari, Gujarat State, India on the sero-epidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) in 1396 bovine (870 cattle and 526 buffaloes) of Southern Gujarat revealed 29.73% overall BoHV-1 antibody in 415 animals. The seroprevalence among cattle (38.16%) was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher in comparison to buffaloes (15.78%). Significant variation in prevalence rate was noted across the districts with Navsari (35.70%) top on the list followed by Valsad, Tapi and Surat (23.45%). Females of these species showed a non-significant higher seroprevalence (30.04%) rate in comparison to their male counterparts. Age-wise seroprevalence differed highly significantly. The higher seroprevalence (58.09%) was recorded among very adult animals (over 7 years of age) with least seroprevalence in below one year of age group (10.75%) indicating animals of increasing age to be more susceptible.
While in ELISA, out of 870 cattle serum samples, 332 (38.16%) samples were found to be positive for IBR antibodies with non-significantly maximum seroprevalence recorded in Valsad district (42.45%) followed by Tapi, Navsari and least in Surat (35.71%). The rate of seroprevalence was highly significant and recorded highest in pure exotic breed, HF (44.45%) followed by HF cross (40.47%), Jersey (40%), Jersey cross (33.33%), nondescript (28%) and the least in pure indigenous breed, Gir (18.75%). Seroprevalence was seen to be non-significantly higher in females (38.28%) than male (34.48%). Cattle above seven years of age showed 59.40% prevalence followed by other younger age groups with least in below one year of age (23.47%).
In buffaloes, out of 526 sera screened, 15.78% cases were found to be positive for IBR antibodies. It was noted significantly to be highest in Valsad (27.45%) followed by Navsari, Surat and Tapi districts. Among different breeds, Surti showed 50.00% seropositivity followed by Mehsani (13.19%) and non-descript breed (9.09%) with least recorded in Jafarabadi (8.33%). Females showed non-significantly higher (15.90%) prevalence than males (13.79%). Like cattle, animals of increasing age (below one to more than 7 years age) appeared more susceptible with highest in the oldest group (34.26%) and the least (8.45%) recorded in the youngest group.
In cattle, the prevalence of IBR was statistically higher in clinically ailing (30.40%, 173/569) than apparently healthy (14.29%, 43/30) animals. Among clinically ailing cattle, history of genital tract infection on the top (48.61%, 70/144) followed by respiratory disorder (30.66%), eye infection (25.26%), pyrexia and/anorexia (22.35%), repeat breeder (17.50%) and abortion (14.29%,4/28) were noticed in different combinations. Among clinically ailed cattle, the highest in older group having 37% seroprevalence and the lowest (4.76%) in the youngest age group (1-4 years). Female showed non-significantly higher (31.07%) than males (16%).
Keywords: IBR; BoHV-1; Bovine; Indirect ELISA; Seroprevalence; Significance
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