A Mini Review on the Significance and Virulence Factors of Clostridium novyi
Teferi Benti Moti*
Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Animal Health Institute, Ethiopia
*Corresponding Author: Teferi Benti Moti, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Animal Health Institute, Ethiopia.
November 08, 2022; Published: December 23, 2022
Clostridium novyi is one of the clostridia species, which are anaerobic, gram-positive, non-capsulated, motile, and have the ability to produce endospores. The spores of Clostridium species are highly resistant to environmental conditions and found in soil, on the faces of animals, and as endogenous sources in the intestinal tract and liver. The vegetative cells of Clostridium species are rod-shaped, frequently pleomorphic, and can be observed under a microscope in pairs, clusters, with rounded ends to their cells, and in short chains. The purpose of this review is to raise awareness of Clostridium novyi importance and its virulence factor. Clostridium novyi affects sheep, swine, cattle, and goats, but rarely equines. Black disease, or infectious necrotic hepatitis, is an acute, fatal disease characterized by edema, including swelling of the eyelids and nostrils, and noticeably elevated liver enzymes. Clostridium novyi is classified into four strains, designated A, B, C, and D, based on their soluble antigen, extent of their toxin production, and the diseases that they cause in humans and animals. Type A strains are of medical importance because they cause gas gangrene in humans, while type B is responsible for infectious necrotizing hepatitis, especially in sheep but occasionally in other animals. Clostridium novyi proliferates in the soft tissues of the head and neck, and the resultant clostridial toxin causes increased capillary permeability and the liberation of serous fluids in the tissues. Clinical history, routine necropsy, histopathology, and immunostaining of C. novyi in liver lesions are essential to giving a reasonable opinion of infectious necrotic hepatitis. Isolation isn't always successful, due to fastidious and strict anaerobic conditions of the microorganism; molecular identification by PCR is a precious tool to give an etiologic opinion and to separate C. novyi type B from other clostridial pathogens. Treatment is infrequently effective; however, control is achieved by disrupting the liver fluke life cycle by reducing populations of the intermediate snail host and actively immunizing with C. novyi toxoid.
Keywords: Bacterial Spores; C. Novyi; Diagnostic Technique; Infectious Necrotic Hepatitis; Toxin
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