Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences (ISSN: 2582-3183)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 12

Pathologic Lesions in Condemned Lungs of Cattle at Two Selected Abattoirs Around Harare, Zimbabwe

Vhori Farai*, Wandayi Simbarashe and Sakara Grace M

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe

*Corresponding Author: Vhori Farai, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe.

Received: November 04, 2022; Published: November 24, 2022

Abstract

In this paper, the author used gross and histologic methods to characterize lesions from condemned (deemed unfit for human consumption by public health officials) cattle lungs, determine their prevalence and estimate the associated financial losses for evaluation. This cross-sectional study was done at two selected abattoirs within 50km radius of Harare during the period May 2019 to August 2019. Gross and histologic methods were used for evaluation. Gross lesions were characterized and grouped based on the texture, distribution, appearance, and/or type of exudate. Samples of approximately 2cm3 were collected from the affected lobes, preserved in 10% formal saline and processed routinely for further histopathologic evaluation. McNemar’s test and the Cohen’s kappa statistic were used to test the interrater reliability of the two methods (k = 0.39). Gross diagnosis is often misleading since various lesions can have a similar presentation. Of the 1275 lungs inspected, 21.8% were condemned. The frequency of lung condemnations varied significantly (P < 0.05) between the two abattoirs; abattoir 1 (25%) and abattoir 2 (18%). Lesions were grouped into pre-existing conditions and those that could have developed during the slaughter processes. Pre-existing conditions accounted for a greater portion of lung condemnations (74.8%) with pneumonia contributing 81.3% of them. The other pre-existing lesions seen were pulmonary edema (12.9%) and fibrosis (1.1%). Conditions related to the slaughtering process occupied 25.1% of lung condemnation with blood splash (12.9%) as the main reason. In conclusion, these results indicated that pneumonia at large and specifically interstitial pneumonia (41.4%) had the highest prevalence and is a challenge that needs appropriate strategy for prevention and control. In addition to this, the slaughtering technique is also contributing to a sizeable financial loss (approximately 25% of lung condemnations).

Keywords:Pathologic; Condemned Lungs; Cattle; Abattoirs

References

  1. Herrero M., et al. “The roles of livestock in developing countries”. Animal 7 (2013): 3-18.v
  2. FAO, ed. Moving Forward on Food Loss and Waste Reduction. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2019).
  3. Fitzpatrick JL. “Global food security: The impact of veterinary parasites and parasitologists”. Veterinary Parasitology3-4 (2013): 233-248.
  4. Perry B and Grace D. “The impacts of livestock diseases and their control on growth and development processes that are pro-poor”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 1530 (2009): 2643-2655.
  5. Raji MA., et al. “Pathological conditions and lesions observed in slaughtered cattle in Zaria abattoir”. Journal of Clinical Pathology and Forensic Medicine2 (2010): 9-12.
  6. World Health Organization. “The Control of Neglected Zoonotic Diseases: A Route to Poverty Alleviation, Report of a Joint WHO/DFID-AHP Meeting, 20 and 21 September 2005, WHO Headquarters, Geneva, with the Participation of FAO and OIE”. World Health Organization (2006).
  7. Zeryehun T and Alemu B. “Major Gross Lesions of Lung in Cattle Slaughtered at Hawassa Municipal Abattoir, Southern Ethiopia”. Journal of Veterinary Medicine 2017 (2017): 1-7.
  8. Ibrahim S., et al. “Role of slaughter facilities management in zoonoses and safety of meat produced for human consumption in Nigeria: a review”. Bulletin of the National Research Centre 1 (2021): 137.
  9. Jaja IF., et al. “Prevalence of lung lesions in slaughtered cattle in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa”. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 1 (2016).
  10. Kidane WY., et al. “A study on gross and histopathological pulmonary lesions of cattle slaughtered at Abergelle Abattoir, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia”. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health6 (2018): 148-152.
  11. Doeschl-Wilson A., et al. “Review: Livestock disease resilience: from individual to herd level”. Animal 15 (2021): 100286.
  12. Tsegaye S and Tessema D. “Gross Pulmonary Lesions of Bovine Lung Slaughtered at Jimma Municipality Abattoir, Ethiopia”. Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology 5 (2016).
  13. Bennet B., et al. “Beef value chain analysis in Zimbabwe” (2019).
  14. Maxie MG. “Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals”. Sixth edition. Elsevier (2016).
  15. Edwards DS., et al. “Meat inspection: an overview of present practices and future trends”. The Veterinary Journal2 (1997): 135-147.
  16. Chirenda J., et al. “Spatial distribution of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in metropolitan Harare, Zimbabwe. Samy AM, ed”. PLoS ONE4 (2020): e0231637.
  17. Dzimiri CT., et al. “Fighting against HIV and AIDS within a resource constrained rural setting: a case study of the Ruvheneko Programme in Chirumhanzu, Zimbabwe”. SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS1 (2019): 25-34.
  18. Rahman MdT., et al. “Zoonotic Diseases: Etiology, Impact, and Control”. Microorganisms9 (2020): 1405.
  19. May S., et al. “Respiratory Health Effects of Large Animal Farming Environments”. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B8 (2012): 524-541.
  20. Rabinowitz P., et al. “Human and animal sentinels for shared health risks”. Veterinaria Italiana 1 (2009): 23-24.
  21. Herenda DC and Chambers PG. “Manual on Meat Inspection for Developing Countries”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (1994).
  22. Jaja IF., et al. “Prevalence of lung lesions in slaughtered cattle in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa”. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 1 (2016): e1-e9.
  23. Maxie MG. “Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals”. Vol 2. Sixth edition. Elsevier (2016).
  24. Panciera RJ and Confer AW. “Pathogenesis and Pathology of Bovine Pneumonia”. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice2 (2010): 191-214.
  25. Zachary JF and McGavin MD. “Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease”. 5th Elsevier (2012).
  26. Hananeh WM and Ismail ZB. “Concurrent occurrence of acute bovine pulmonary edema and emphysema and endocardial fibroelastosis in cattle: A case history and literature review”. Veterinary World 7 (2018): 971-976.
  27. Hussain R., et al. “Pathological and clinical investigations of an outbreak of Blackleg disease due to C. chauvoei in cattle in Punjab, Pakistan”. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries09 (2019): 786-793.
  28. Gregory NG., et al. “Blood in the respiratory tract during slaughter with and without stunning in cattle”. Meat Science1 (2009): 13-16.
  29. Suvarna KS. “Bancroft’s Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques (Eighth Edition)” (2019).
  30. Slaoui M and Fiette L. “Histopathology Procedures: From Tissue Sampling to Histopathological Evaluation. In: Gautier JC, ed. Drug Safety Evaluation. Vol 691. Methods in Molecular Biology. Humana Press (2011): 69-82.
  31. Coelho ACB., et al. “Atypical bovine interstitial pneumonia in a semi-intensive beef cattle system”. Ciencia Rural 11 (2017).
  32. Tsegaye S and Tessema D. “Gross Pulmonary Lesions of Bovine Lung Slaughtered at Jimma Municipality Abattoir, Ethiopia”. Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology5 (2016).
  33. Praveena PE., et al. “Pathology of Experimental Infection by Pasteurella multocida Serotype A: 1 in Buffalo Calves”. Veterinary Pathology 6 (2014): 1109-1112.
  34. Agbeniga B and Webb EC. “Effect of slaughter technique on bleed-out, blood in the trachea and blood splash in the lungs of cattle”. South African Journal of Animal Science5 (2012): 524-529.
  35. Mellau BL., et al. “Slaughter stock abattoir survey of carcasses and organ/offal condemnations in Arusha region, northern Tanzania”. Tropical Animal Health and Production 4 (2011): 857-864.
  36. Chatikobo P., et al. “Participatory diagnosis and prioritization of constraints to cattle production in some smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe”. Preventive Veterinary Medicine3 (2013): 327-333.
  37. Mavedzenge BZ., et al. “The Dynamics of Real Markets: Cattle in Southern Zimbabwe following Land Reform”. Development and Change4 (2008): 613-639.
  38. Alton GD., et al. “Factors associated with whole carcass condemnation rates in provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario 2001-2007: implications for food animal syndromic surveillance”. BMC Veterinary Research 6 (2010): 42.
  39. Álvarez J., et al. “Epidemiology and Control of Notifiable Animal Diseases”. Frontiers Media SA (2019).
  40. Kidane WY., et al. “A study on gross and histopathological pulmonary lesions of cattle slaughtered at Abergelle Abattoir, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia”. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health 6 (2018): 148-152.
  41. Nyaga PN., et al. “Prevalence of antibodies to parainfluenza-3 virus in various wildlife species and indigenous cattle sharing the same habitats in kenya”. Journal of Wildlife Diseases4 (1981): 605-608.
  42. Timsit E., et al. “Distinct bacterial metacommunities inhabit the upper and lower respiratory tracts of healthy feedlot cattle and those diagnosed with bronchopneumonia”. Veterinary Microbiology 221 (2018): 105-113.
  43. Loos SL. “The Merck Veterinary Manual Online (8th edition)”. Reference Reviews 20.2 (2006): 40-40.
  44. Vegad JL and Swamy M. “A Textbook of Veterinary Systemic Pathology. 2. rev. and enlarged edition. IBDC Published (2010).
  45. Britton AP and Zabek EN. “Bronchopneumonia in two dairy calves associated with Mannheimia species cluster V infection”. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 6 (2012): 1043-1046.
  46. Caswell JL. “Failure of Respiratory Defenses in the Pathogenesis of Bacterial Pneumonia of Cattle”. Veterinary Pathology (2013).
  47. Lamm CG., et al. “Comparison of antemortem antimicrobial treatment regimens to antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of postmortem lung isolates from feedlot cattle with bronchopneumonia”. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 2 (2012): 277-282.
  48. Doyle D., et al. “Agreement Among 4 Sampling Methods to Identify Respiratory Pathogens in Dairy Calves with Acute Bovine Respiratory Disease”. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 3 (2017): 954-959.
  49. Zeryehun T and Alemu B. “Major Gross Lesions of Lung in Cattle Slaughtered at Hawassa Municipal Abattoir, Southern Ethiopia”. Journal of Veterinary Medicine 2017 (2017): 1-7.

Citation

Citation: Vhori Farai., et al. “Pathologic Lesions in Condemned Lungs of Cattle at Two Selected Abattoirs Around Harare, Zimbabwe".Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 4.12 (2022): 163-171.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 Vhori Farai., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.008

Indexed In





News and Events


Contact US