Rabies; General Overview, Zoonotic Importance, Prevention and Control
Abolarin Tope Emmanuel*
Department of Veterinary Medicine/Public Health, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author:Abolarin Tope Emmanuel, Department of Veterinary Medicine/Public Health, University of Ilorin, Nigeria.
October 17, 2022; Published: November 16, 2022
Rabies it is one of the most prevalent zoonoses that has been recorded over time. The terms used to describe rabies date back thousands of years, demonstrating how old the disease is. It is a contagious viral disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that causes convulsions, paralysis, excessive salivation, and an aversion to water in sufferers. In most cases, the condition results in the infected animal's death. Rabies is caused by a single stranded, negative-sense RNA virus of the order Mononegavirales, family Rhabdoviridae and genus Lyssavirus. Rabies is not uncommon among viral diseases in that it can affect a variety of victims, including all warm-blooded animals. The only place where rabies is not common is on islands. Except for Australia and Antarctica, many of the nations have rabies as an endemic disease. Over 55,000 people per year die from rabies worldwide, with 99% of those deaths occurring in Africa and Asia. Because of their preference for neural tissue (a condition known as neurotrophism), lyssaviruses can spread to the central nervous system and produce serious symptoms. The virus may remain dormant or continue to proliferate in nearby nerve tissues after a bite wound (and possibly skeletal muscle). The virus is typically spread through bites, with a smaller amount of transmission occurring through contact with rabid animal saliva on cuts, wounds, and mucous membranes. Since its inception in 1958, the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test has been extensively utilized on both humans and animals to identify the antigens of the rabies virus in the brain tissue. Renewed surveillance based on laboratory and variant typing is necessary for the prevention and control of rabies. In order to manage potentially exposed animals and help in the detection of new pathogens, precise and timely information and reporting are required. Viral introduction by the admission of infected animals is always a possibility. To understand the role that these animals play in disease transmission, it is still unknown how common rabies is in wild animals. For the purpose of finding newly imported RABV variations, ongoing monitoring of less common non-reservoir species is crucial.
Keywords: Rabies; Zoonotic; Prevention and Control
- Takayama N. “Clinical feature of human rabies. (In Japanese)”. Nippon Rinsho12 (2005): 2175-2179.
- Steele JH and PJ Fernandez. “History of rabies and global aspects. 1- 24, in the natural history of rabies (G. M. Baer, ed.)”. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida (1991): 620.
- AWOYOMI O., et al. “Socioeconomic factors associated with non-vaccination of dogs against rabies in Ibadan, Nigeria”. Nigerian Veterinary Journal 3 (2007): 59-63.
- BEARD M. “Woman dies of rabies after Nigerian dog bite”. Independent Newspaper, The London (2001).
- WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. “Expert Consultation on Rabies”. Technical Report Series 931 (2005): 44.
- George M Baer. “Commentary on rabies; Defining the rabies problem”. Public Health Reports3 (1998): 245
- Blancou J. “History of surveillance and control of transmissible animal diseases”. Paris: Office International des Epizootics (2003): 193-219.
- Hanlon C and Childs J. “Epidemiology. In: Jackson A, editor. Rabies scientific basis of the disease and its management”. Oxford: Elsevier (2013): 61-122.
- “World Health Organization: Rabies, countries or areas at risk”. WHO Rabnet/CDC (Data source) and WHO Public Health Information and Geographic Information Systems (Map production). ©World Health Organization, Avenue Appia 20, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (2013).
- Knobel DL., et al. “Reevaluating the burden of rabies in Africa and Asia”. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 83 (2005): 360-368.
- Yousaf MZ., et al. “Rabies molecular virology, diagnosis, prevention and treatment”. Virology Journal 9 (2012): 50.
- Dutta JK and Dutta TK. “Rabies in endemic countries”. The British Medical Journal 308 (1994): 488-489.
- Meslin FX. “Rabies as a traveler’s risk, especially in high endemicity areas”. Journal of Travel Medicine 1 (2005): S30-S40.
- Mudur G. “Foreign visitors to India are unaware of rabies risk”. The British Medical Journal 331 (2005): 255.
- Castrodale L., et al. “Rabies in a puppy imported from India to the USA, March 2007”. Zoonoses Public Health8-10 (2008): 427-430.
- McKay N and Wallis I. “Rabies: a review of UK management”. Emergency Medicine Journal 22 (2005): 316-321.
- Pounder D. “Bat rabies”. The BMJ7392 (2003): 726.
- Fooks AR., et al. “Intracerebral delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) using adenoviral vector protects mice against lethal peripheral rabies challenge”. Virus Research 1 (2007): 11-18.
- Hampson K., et al. “Estimating the global burden of endemic canine rabies”. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 4 (2015): e0003709.
- De Benedictis P., et al. “Phylogenetic analysis of rabies viruses from Burkina Faso, 2007”. Zoonoses Public Health 7-8 (2010): e42-e46.
- Nguyen AK., et al. “Molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in Vietnam (2006-2009)”. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases 5 (2011): 391-396.
- Greene CE., et al. “Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat”. W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia (1990): 365-383.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Rabies Prevention-United States, Recommendations of the Immunizations Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP)”. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report3 (1991): 1-19.
- Jackson AC. Pathogenesis. In: Jackson AC, Wunner WH, editors. “Rabies”. 2nd London: Elsevier Academic Press (2007b): 341-381.
- Rossiter JP., et al. “Selective vulnerability of dorsal root ganglia neurons in experimental rabies after peripheral inoculation of CVS-11 in adult mice”. Acta Neuropathologica 2 (2009): 249-259.
- Jackson AC. “Rabies pathogenesis update”. Rev PanAmaz Saude1 (2010): 167-172.
- Wilde H., et al. “Failure of postexposure treatment of rabies in children”. Clinical Infectious Diseases 22 (1996): 228-232.
- Morimoto K., et al. “Characterization of a unique variant of bat rabies virus responsible for newly emerging human cases in North America”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 93 (1996): 5653-5658.
- De Serres G., et al. “Bats in the bedroom, bats in the belfry: reanalysis of the rationale for rabies postexposure prophylaxis”. Clinical Infectious Diseases 48 (2009): 1493-1499.
- Rupprecht CE., et al. “Use of a reduced (4-dose) vaccine schedule for postexposure prophylaxis to prevent human rabies: recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices”. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report RR-2 (2010): 1-9.
- Bernard KW., et al. “Neuroparalytic illness and human diploid cell rabies vaccine”. JAMA 248 (1982): 3136-3138.
- World Health Organization. “WHO expert consultation on rabies: second report”. WHO Press (2013).
- Knobel DL., et al. “Re-evaluating the burden of rabies in Africa and Asia”. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 83 (2005): 360-368.
- Sudarshan MK., et al. “An epidemiological study of animal bites in India: results of a WHO sponsored national multi-centric rabies survey”. Journal of Communicable Diseases 38 (2006): 32-39.
- Castrodale L., et al. “Rabies in a puppy imported from India to the USA, March 2007”. Zoonoses Public Health 55 (8-10): 427-430.
- Blanton JD., et al. “Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2008”. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 6 (2008): 676-689.
- Deb R., et al. “Infectious diseases of cattle”. New Delhi: Satish Serial Publishing House (2012): 224.
- Fisman DN. “Taking the bite out of rabies, putting teeth into one health”. Annals of Internal Medicine 2 (2012): 132-133.
- Seneschall C and Luna-Farro M. “Controlling rabies through a multidisciplinary, public health system in Trujillo, La Libertad, Peru”. Pathogens and Global Health 7 (2013): 361-366.
- Weese JS. “A review of equine zoonotic diseases: risks in veterinary medicine”. Proceedings Annual Convention AAEP 48 (2002): 362-369.
- Beran GW. “Zoonoses in practice”. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 23 (1993): 1085-1097.
- Dzikwi AA., et al. “Knowledge, attitude and practice about rabies among children receiving formal and informal education in Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria”. Global Journal of Health Science 5 (2012): 132-139.
- “Investigation of rabies infections in organ donor and transplant recipients - Alabama, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, 2004”. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 53 (2004): 1-3.
- Rajendra Singh., et al. “Rabies - epidemiology, pathogenesis, public health concerns and advances in diagnosis and control: a comprehensive review”. Veterinary Quarterly1 (2017): 212-251.