Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences (ISSN: 2582-3183)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 11

Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Sheep Farms in Greece: Assessment of the Current Situation and Investigation Towards Improving Surveillance and Control

Nikolaos Tzimotoudis1, Antonia Mataragka2*, Alexandros Mavrommatis3, Chrisovalantis Malesios4, Vasiliki Anastasiadi2, Dimitrios Galanis2, Dorina Timofte5, Flavia Zendri5, Helena C de Carvalho Ferreira6, Erwin Wauters6, Eleni Tsiplakou3, George Zervas3 and John Ikonomopoulos 2

1Hellenic Army Biological Research Center/Laboratory of Microbiology, Athens, Greece
2Department of Animal Science, Laboratory of Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals, School of Animal Biosciences, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece
3Department of Animal Science, Laboratory of Nutritional Physiology and Feeding, School of Animal Biosciences, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece
4Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece
5Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology, Institute of Infection, Veterinary and Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Neston, United Kingdom
6Flanders Research Institute for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Social Sciences Unit, Belgium

*Corresponding Author: Antonia Mataragka, Department of Animal Science, Laboratory of Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals, School of Animal Biosciences, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece.

Received: October 20, 2022; Published: October 29, 2022


The aim of this study was to assess the spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in sheep farms in Greece and identify potential indicators to improve field surveillance.

Ninety-four samples of milk, drinking water, animal feed, bedding, and faeces were collected from 5 dairy sheep farms. The samples were processed for isolation of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and the assessment of AMR using conventional microbiology and the polymerase chain reaction.

Positivity to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was 38.3% and 16%, respectively (36 and 15 of 94). Detection of Escherichia coli in animal feeds was significantly higher compared to the other types of test samples, and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus AMR in the certain types of samples increased probability of its detection in milk by 3.25 times. Investigation for associations between sample positivity with the use of antibiotics indicated that the higher the amount of antibiotics, the higher the proportion of Escherichia coli non-susceptible to at least two antimicrobial categories (AMR+), detected in milk.

Escherichia coli isolates were significantly more likely to be AMR+ when the latter pathogen was resistant to ampicillin.

The results indicate that AMR is a common problem in the sampled farms, which is associated with high occurrence of mastitis and poor antibiotic stewardship for its treatment. Animal feeds and milk collected from the bulk milk tank proved suitable for the assessment of AMR, as did detection of ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli. Isolation of AMR Staphylococcus aureus in animal feeds emerged as a promising indicator for monitoring mastitis.

Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistance; Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichia coli, Antibiotics; Dairy Sheep; Multidrug Resistance


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Citation: Antonia Mataragka., et al. “Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Sheep Farms in Greece: Assessment of the Current Situation and Investigation Towards Improving Surveillance and Control".Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 4.11 (2022): 173-186.


Copyright: © 2022 Antonia Mataragka., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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