Study on the Efficacy of Garlic Extract Against Cadmium Toxicity of Liver and Kidney in Rats
Noura Mohammed Almaimouni1*, Moustafa Hussein Roshdy
Elnaggar1,2, Mansour Attia Al-Hazmi1 and Hassan Mohamed Heba1
1Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdulaziz University,
2Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
*Corresponding Author:Aashiq Hussain, AGM - Technical (AHN), Department of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition, Rossari Biotech Limited, India.
October 04, 2022; Published: October 18, 2022
Background: Cadmium (Cd) is widespread pollutant that affected human health.
Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) against hepatorenal toxic-
ity of cadmium in rats.
Methods: 32 adult male rats were used and divided equally into four groups each with 8 rat: Group I: Control group, the rats of this
group were given normal diet and water for four weeks, Group II: Garlic group, the rats of this group received garlic extract 350 mg/
kg bw by stomach tube every second day for four weeks, Group III: Cadmium group, the rat of this group received 60 mg/kg bw Cad-
mium by stomach tube every second day for four weeks, and Group IV: Garlic + Cadmium group, the rat of this group received garlic
extract 350 mg/kg bw then 60 mg/kg bw Cadmium by stomach tube every second day for four weeks. At the end of the experiment,
samples of blood were taken for biochemical analysis. Then rats were sacrificed and dissected, and samples of liver and kidney were
collected for histological studies. Body weight was measured at the beginning and the end of the experiment. Blood samples were
collected at experiment end. Sera prepared to measure activities of liver and kidney functions.
Results: It was observed that weight gain was significantly decreased in Cd group and Garlic + Cd group versus control and Garlic
groups. Percentage changes in body weight were significantly decreased in Cd group and Garlic + Cd group versus control and Garlic
groups. Cadmium administration caused significant increases in the activities of ALT, AST and ALP enzymes, and in the values of CRE,
URE, UA, TG, CHOL, LDL-c and VLDL-c, but HDL-c was significantly decreased. These changes were ameliorated with administration
Conclusions: Cadmium administration produces toxic effects that partially improved after garlic administration due to its antioxi-
dant and anti-inflammatory effects.
Keywords: Cadmium; Garlic; Liver; Kidney; Protective Effects; Physiology; Histology
- Alawi N., et al. “The Protective Effect of Grape (Vitis vinifera) Seed Oil on Testicular Structure of Male Rats Exposed to Lead”. Advances in Biological Research 1 (2018): 16-25.
- Valko M., et al. “Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress”. Current Medicinal Chemistry 10 (2005): 1161-1208.
- Vinodini NA., et al. “Evaluation of liver functions with Moringa oleifera leaf extract in cadmium induced adult Wister albino rats”. International Journal of Plant Animal and Environmental Sciences 3 (2014): 103-106.
- Albasha MO and Azab AE. “Effect of cadmium on the liver and amelioration by aqueous extracts of fenugreek seeds, rosemary, and cinnamon in guinea pigs: Histological and biochemical study”. Cell Biology 2 (2014): 34-44.
- Renugadevi J and Prabu SM. “Cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and the protective effect of naringenin”. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology 62 (2010): 171-181.
- Lakshmi GD., et al. “Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris L on liver and kidney in cadmium intoxicated rats”. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 50 (2012): 141-146.
- Adikwu E., et al. “Hepatotoxicity of cadmium and roles of mitigating agents”. British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 6 (2013): 222-231.
- Adebajo AC., et al. “Pharmacological properties of the extract and some isolated compounds of Clausena Lansium stem bark: anti-trichomonal., antidiabetic. anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1 (2009): 10-19.
- Mantur VS., et al. “Ameliorating effect of black tea extract on cadmium chloride-induced alteration of serum lipid profile and liver histopathology in rats”. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 2 (2014): 128-132.
- Chan JY., et al. “A review of the cardiovascular benefits and antioxidant properties of allicin”. Phytotherapy Research 27 (2013): 637-646.
- Patten CJ., et al. “Cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in acetaminophen activation by rat and human liver microsomes and their kinetics”. Chemical Research in Toxicology 6 (1993): 511-518.
- Al-Attar AM and Zari TA. “Influences of crude extract of tea leaves, Camellia sinensis, on streptozotocin diabetic male albino mice”. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences4 (2010): 295-301.
- Reitman S and Frankel S. “A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases”. American Journal of Clinical Pathology1 (1957): 56-63.
- Bergmeyer HU., et al. “Approved recommendation on IFCC methods for the measurement of catalytic enzymes. Part 3: IFCC method for alanine aminotransferase”. Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry 24 (1986): 481-495.
- McComb RB and Bowers GN. “Study of optimum buffer conditions for measuring alkaline phosphatase activity in human serum”. Clinical Chemistry 2 (1972): 97-104.
- Moore JF and Sharer JD. “Methods for Quantitative Creatinine Determination”. Current Protocols in Human Genetics 93 (2017): A.3O.1-A.3O.7.
- Patton G and Crouch S. “Colorimetric Method for the Determination of Serum Urea”. Analytical Chemistry 49 (1977): 464-469.
- Isdale IC., et al. “Serum Uric Acid Estimation: A Modified Chemical Method”. Annals of Rheumatic Diseases 25 (1966): 184185.
- Fossati P and Prencipe L. "Serum triglycerides determined colorimetrically with an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide". Clinical Chemistry 10 (1982): 2077-2080.
- Richmond W. "Preparation and properties of a cholesterol oxidase from Nocardia sp. and its application to the enzymatic assay of total cholesterol in serum". Clinical Chemistry 12 (1973): 1350-1356.
- Warnick GR., et al. “Estimation of HDL-cholesterol selected methods". Clinical Chemistry 1 (1983): 91-99.
- Friedewald WT., et al. “Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge”. Clinical Chemistry 6 (1972): 499-502.
- Culling CFA and Dunn WL. “Handbook of histopathological and histochemical techniques (including museum techniques)”. 3rd London: Butterworths, (1974).
- Järup L and Åkesson A. “Current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem”. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology3 (2009): 201-208.
- Afifi OK and Embaby AS. “Histological study on the protective role of ascorbic acid on cadmium induced cerebral cortical neurotoxicity in adult male albino rats”. Journal of Microscopy and Ultrastructure1 (2016): 36-45.
- Fabricant DS and Farnsworth NR. “The value of plants used in traditional medicine for drug discovery”. Environmental Health Perspectives1 (2001): 69-75.
- Ashraf R., et al. “Effects of garlic on dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus”. Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad 17 (2005): 60-64.
- Pittler MH and Ernst E. “Clinical effectiveness of garlic (Allium sativum)”. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research 11 (2007): 1382-1385.
- Han XY., et al. “Effect of cadmium on lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes in growing pigs”. Biological Trace Element Research3 (2006): 251-263.
- Njus D., et al. “Ascorbic acid: The chemistry underlying its antioxidant properties”. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 159 (2020): 37-43.
- Al-Baqami NM and Hamza RZ. “Protective Effect of Resveratrol against Hepatotoxicity of Cadmium in Male Rats: Antioxidant and Histopathological Approaches”. Coatings 11 (2021): 594.
- Rao SS., et al. “Effect of quercetin and curcumin in rats sub-acutely exposed to cadmium chloride: haemato-biochemical changes, oxidative stress parameters and histopathological changes in intestine, liver and kidney of rats”. The Journal of Phytopharmacology5 (2021): 399-408.
- Obianime AW and Roberts II. “Antioxidants, cadmium-induced toxicity, serum biochemical and the histological abnormalities of the kidney and testes of the male Wistar rats”. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences2 (2009): 177-185.
- El-Boshy M., et al. “Studies on the protective effect of the artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaf extract against cadmium toxicity-induced oxidative stress, hepatorenal damage, and immunosuppressive and hematological disorders in rats”. Environmental Science and Pollution Research13 (2017): 12372-12383.
- Yildirim S., et al. “An investigation of protective effects of litium borate on blood and histopathological parameters in acute cadmium-induced rats”. Biological Trace Element Research2 (2018): 287-294.
- Satarug S. “Dietary Cadmium Intake and Its Effects on Kidneys”. Toxics1 (2018): 15.
- El-Sharaky A., et al. “Protective role of selenium against renal toxicity induced by cadmium in rats”. Toxicology3 (2007): 185-193.
- Morales A., et al. “Protective effect of quercetin on experimental chronic cadmium nephrotoxicity in rats is based on its antioxidant properties”. Food and Chemical Toxicology12 (2006): 2092-2100.
- Gena P., et al. “Cadmium impairs albumin reabsorption by down-regulating megalin and ClC5 channels in renal proximal tubule cells”. Environmental Health Perspectives11 (2010): 1551-1556.
- Rodrigo R and Bosco C. “Oxidative stress and protective effects of polyphenols: comparative studies in human and rodent kidney. A review”. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology and Pharmacology 3-4 (2006): 317-327.
- Gulnaz H., et al. “Protective effects of garlic oil on acetaminophen induced nephrotoxicity in male albino rats”. BioMedica 26 (2010): 9-15.
- Bandillo N., et al. “Multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) populations in rice: progress and potential for genetics research and breeding”. Rice (New York)1 (2013): 11.
- Nordberg GF. “Historical perspectives on cadmium toxicology”. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology3 (2009): 192-200.
- Cobbina SJ., et al. “Toxicity assessment due to sub-chronic exposure to individual and mixtures of four toxic heavy metals”. Journal of Hazardous Materials 294 (2015): 109-120.
- Samarghandian S., et al. “Effect of chronic exposure to cadmium on serum lipid, lipoprotein and oxidative stress indices in male rats”. Interdisciplinary Toxicology3 (2015): 151-154.
- Flora SJS., et al. “Prevention of arsenic-induced hepatic apoptosis by concomitant administration of garlic extracts in mice”. Chemico-Biological Interactions13 (2009): 227-233.
- Mallya R., et al. “Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract: Beneficial Effects on Cadmium Induced Toxicities - A Review”. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research4 (2017): CE01-CE04.
- Jihen EH., et al. “Protective effects of selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity in the liver and kidney of the rat: Histology and Cd accumulation”. Food and Chemical Toxicology11 (2008): 3522-3527.
- Manna P., et al. “Cadmium induced testicular pathophysiology: Prophylactic role of taurine”. Toxicology Reports 26 (2008): 282-291.
- Ola-Mudathir KF., et al. “Protective roles of onion and garlic extracts on cadmium-induced changes in sperm characteristics and testicular oxidative damage in rats”. Food and Chemical Toxicology12 (2008): 3604-3611.