Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences (ISSN: 2582-3183)

Review Article Volume 4 Issue 11

A Review on Lumpy Skin Disease: One of the Most Neglected Diseases of Cattle with an Unprecedented Incidence in Non-Endemic Countries

Tapas Kumar Goswami1* Amit Sharma2, Surendra Kumar Badasara3, Sunil Kumar Mohapatra4 and Sanjeev Kumar1

1Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Institute of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, SOA (Deemed to be University), Bhubaneswar, India

2Department of Life Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea

3Veterinary Hospital, Mahapura, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

4Department of Veterinary Biochemistry, Institute of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, SOA (Deemed to be University), Bhubaneswar, India

*Corresponding Author: Tapas Kumar Goswami, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Institute of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, SOA (Deemed to be University), Bhubaneswar, India.

Received: June 27, 2022; Published: October 12, 2022

Abstract

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) of cattle is considered to be a neglected disease that mostly remains endemic in African countries. It is caused by a pox group of viruses. Presently the disease has crossed the fence and surfaced with an unprecedented incidence in Asian countries like India Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan. As per scientific reports, several arthropod species like biting flies, mosquitoes and ticks act as mechanical vectors for the transmission of the disease. Animal-to-animal contact may also disseminate the disease as well as long-distance man-made travel of the infected animal is the source of disease transmission. Cattle and buffalo of all age groups are susceptible to this virus. The disease is not zoonotic and morbidity may rise up to 40% yet mortality is too low. Among cattle breed Bos indicus is relatively less susceptible than Bos taurus. The LSD virus is an enveloped virus having 151 kbp double stranded DNA that remain enclosed by an outer protein coat. Genome sequencing of sheep pox virus (SPV), goat pox virus (GTPV) and LSDV has given an indication that all these three viruses have a common ancestral origin with antigenic relatedness. Due to antigenic sharing serological detection of antibody may not add accuracy in diagnosis of LSD. Easily identifiable firm raised skin nodules of 2-7 cm diameter spread throughout the body typically confined to neck, leg and back region extend to tail, are the cardinal sign of LSD that hardly goes unnoticed. Histopathology, serology, virus isolation and PCR techniques are used for laboratory diagnosis. As of now no specific treatment is recommended, but to prevent any secondary infection use of antibiotic is suggested. Several homologues and heterologous vaccines are available to control the disease severity in endemic regions. Most prevalent vaccine is cell culture adapted live attenuated vaccine derived from Neethling strain of LSD virus. To prevent the infection in disease free countries few items like semen, embryo and milk should not be imported from those countries where active cases persists. Complete eradication of the LSD in resource poor countries is not feasible yet reduction in disease incidence can be achieved either with ring vaccination or mass vaccination of healthy cattle at the disease endemic area.

 

Keywords: Arthropod Vector; Capripox; Homologous Vaccine; Lumpy Skin Disease; Mechanical Transmission; Neethling Strain; Skin Nodules; Vaccines

References

  1. Goswami TK. “Why to be serious about monkeypox virus”. Indian Journal of Animal Health1 (2022): 186-192.
  2. Koirala P., et al. “Molecular Characterization of the 2020 Outbreak of Lumpy Skin Disease in Nepal”. Microorganisms3 (2022): 539-551.
  3. MacDonald RAS. “Pseudo-Urticaria of Cattle”. Government of Northern Rhodesia: Department of Animal Health (1931): 20-21.
  4. Roche X., et al. “Introduction and spread of lumpy skin disease in South, East and Southeast Asia: qualitative risk assessment and management”. Food and Agriculture Organisation (2021): Paper 183.
  5. Hasib FM., et al. “Lumpy skin disease outbreak in cattle population of Chattogram, Bangladesh”. Veterinary Medicine and Science5 (2021): 1616-1624.
  6. Sudhakar SB., et al. “Lumpy skin disease (LSD) outbreaks in cattle in Odisha state, India in August 2019: Epidemiological features and molecular studies”. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases6 (2020): 2408-2422.
  7. Kumar N., et al. “Isolation and characterization of lumpy skin disease virus from cattle in India”. PLoS One1 (2021): e0241022.
  8. Sudhakar S., et al. “Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of lumpy skin disease viruses (LSDV) isolated from the first and subsequent field outbreaks in India during 2019 reveals close proximity with unique signatures of historical Kenyan NI-2490/Kenya/KSGP-like field strains”. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases4 (2022): e451-e462.
  9. Davies FG. “Observations on the epidemiology of lumpy skin disease in Kenya”. Epidemiology and Infection1 (1982): 95-102.
  10. Carn VM and Kitching RP. “An investigation of possible routes of transmission of lumpy skin disease virus (Neethling)”. Epidemiology and Infection 114 (1995): 219-226.
  11. Greta A., et al. “Capripoxvirus disease in an Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) from Saudi Arabia”. Journal of Wildlife Diseases2 (1992): 295-300.
  12. Namazi F and Khodakaram Tafti A. “Lumpy skin disease, an emerging transboundary viral disease: A review”. Veterinary Medicine and Science3 (2021): 888-896.
  13. Condit RC., et al. “In a nutshell: structure and assembly of the vaccinia virion”. Advances in Virus Research 66 (2006): 31-124.
  14. Tulman CL., et al. “Genome of lumpy skin disease virus”. Journal of Virology15 (2001): 7122-7130.
  15. Saltykov YV., et al. “Genetic Evidence of Multiple Introductions of Lumpy Skin Disease Virus into Saratov Region, Russia”. Pathogens6 (2021): 716.
  16. Tuppurainen ESM., et al. “Lumpy skin disease”. Springer International Cham, Switzerland (2018).
  17. Coetzer JA. “Lumpy skin disease”. Infectious diseases of livestock 2nd ed. University Press Southern Africa (2004): 1268-1276.
  18. Beard PM. “Lumpy skin disease: a direct threat to Europe”. The Veterinary Record22 (2016): 557-558.
  19. Edelsten M. “Threat to European cattle from lumpy skin disease”. The Veterinary Record13 (2014): 330.
  20. Calistri P., et al. “Scientific report on the lumpy skin disease epidemiological report IV: data collection and analysis”. EFSA Journal2 (2020): 6010-6036.
  21. Carn VM and Kitching RP. “The clinical response of cattle experimentally infected with lumpy skin disease (Neethling) virus”. Archives of Virology3 (1995): 503-513.
  22. Babiuk S., et al. “Quantification of lumpy skin disease virus following experimental infection in cattle”. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases7 (2008): 299-307.
  23. Tuppurainen ESM., et al. “The detection of lumpy skin disease virus in samples of experimentally infected cattle using different diagnostic techniques”. Onderstepoort Journal Veterinary Research 72 (2005): 153-164.
  24. Binepal YS., et al. “Alternative cell lines for the propagation of lumpy skin disease virus”. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 2 (2001): 151-153.
  25. Office International des Epizooties. “Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals”. In: Chapter 2.4.13. Paris: Lumpy Skin Disease (2017).
  26. Ochwo S., et al. “Seroprevalence and risk factors for lumpy skin disease virus seropositivity in cattle in Uganda”. BMC Veterinary Research1 (2019): 1-9.
  27. Haegeman A., et al. “An Immunoperoxidase Monolayer Assay (IPMA) for the detection of lumpy skin disease antibodies”. Journal of Virological Methods 277 (2020): 113800.
  28. Lamien CE., et al. “Use of the Capripoxvirus homologue of Vaccinia virus 30 kDa RNA polymerase subunit (RPO30) gene as a novel diagnostic and genotyping target: Development of a classical PCR method to differentiate Goat poxvirus from Sheep poxvirus”. Veterinary Microbiology1-2 (2011): 30-39.
  29. Amin DM., et al. “Diagnosis of naturally occurring lumpy skin disease virus infection in cattle using virological, molecular, and immunohistopathological assays”. Veterinary World8 (2021): 2230-2237.
  30. Tollefson, J. “Earth is warmer than it`s been 125,000 years, says landmark climate report”. Nature 596 (2021): 171-172.
  31. Kitching RP and Mellor PS. “Insect transmission of capripoxvirus”. Research in Veterinary Science2 (1986): 255-258.
  32. Sanz-Bernardo B., et al. “Quantifying and Modeling the Acquisition and Retention of Lumpy Skin Disease Virus by Hematophagus Insects Reveals Clinically but Not Subclinically Affected Cattle Are Promoters of Viral Transmission and Key Targets for Control of Disease Outbreaks”. Journal of Virology9 (2021): e02239-02320.
  33. Gari G., et al. “Risk factors associated with observed clinical lumpy skin disease in Ethiopia”. Epidemiology and Infection11 (2010): 1657-1666.
  34. Irons PC., et al. “Excretion of lumpy skin disease virus in bull semen”. Theriogenology5 (2005): 1290-1297.
  35. Halder B and Seikh B. “Successful Management of Lumpy Skin Disease in Calf: A Case Study”. Journal of Fisheries and Livestock Production 10 (2022): 329.
  36. Ben-Gera J., et al. “Comparison of the efficacy of Neethling lumpy skin disease virus and x10RM65 sheep-pox live attenuated vaccines for the prevention of lumpy skin disease-The results of a randomized controlled field study”. Vaccine38 (2015): 4837-4842.
  37. Kitching RP. “Vaccines for lumpy skin disease, sheep pox and goat pox”. Developments in Biologicals 114 (2003): 161-167.
  38. Hamdi J., et al. “Capripoxvirus infections in ruminants: A review”. Microorganisms5 (2021): 902.
  39. Haegeman A., et al. “Comparative Evaluation of Lumpy Skin Disease Virus-Based Live Attenuated Vaccines”. Vaccines5 (2021): 473.
  40. Zhugunissov K., et al. “Goatpox Virus (G20-LKV) Vaccine Strain Elicits a Protective Response in Cattle against Lumpy Skin Disease at Challenge with Lumpy Skin Disease Virulent Field Strain in a Comparative Study”. Veterinary Microbiology 245 (2020): 108695.
  41. Davies FG and Mbugwa G. “The alterations in pathogenicity and immunogenicity of a Kenya sheep and goat pox virus on serial passage in bovine foetal muscle cell cultures”. Journal of Comparative Pathology4 (1985): 565-572.
  42. Vandenbussche F., et al. “Recombinant LSDV Strains in Asia: Vaccine Spill over or Natural Emergence?” Viruses7 (2022): 1429.
  43. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1850589[Posted On: 10 AUG 2022 6:27PM by PIB Delhi, accessod 2022 September 12.
  44. Goswami TK and Soman JP. “Development and evaluation of an inactivated goatpox vaccine”. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences2 (1986): 200-203.
  45. Norian R., et al. “Evaluation of Humoral and Cell-mediated Immunity of Two Capripoxvirus Vaccine Strains against Lumpy Skin Disease Virus”. Iranian Journal of Virology4 (2016): 1-11.
  46. Shafik NG., et al. “Comparative study between lumpy skin disease virus and sheep pox virus vaccines against recent field isolate of lumpy skin disease virus”. Revista Bionatura3 (2021): 1955-1959.
  47. Milovanović M., et al. “Humoral immune response to repeated lumpy skin disease virus vaccination and performance of serological tests”. BMC Veterinary Research1 (2019): 80.
  48. Agianniotaki EI., et al. “Colostrum transfer of neutralizing antibodies against lumpy skin disease virus from vaccinated cows to their calves”. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases6 (2018): 2043-2048.
  49. Uzar S., et al. “Comparison and efficacy of two different sheep pox vaccines prepared from the Bakırköy strain against lumpy skin disease in cattle”. Clinical Experimental Vaccine Research1 (2022): 1-11.
  50. Goswami TK et al. “Evaluation of ovine neutrophil functions: its possible role in protection against viral infection”. PolivetII (2000): 2019-221.
  51. Safini N., et al. “Development and Evaluation of a Combined Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) Live Vaccine”. Viruses2 (2022): 372.
  52. Wallace DB., et al. “Protection of Cattle Elicited Using a Bivalent Lumpy Skin Disease Virus-Vectored Recombinant Rift Valley Fever Vaccine”. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 7 (2020): 256.
  53. Infection with lumpy skin disease chapter 11.9 OIE - Terrestrial Animal Health Code (2020).

Citation

Citation: Tapas Kumar Goswami., et al. “A Review on Lumpy Skin Disease: One of the Most Neglected Diseases of Cattle with an Unprecedented Incidence in Non-Endemic Countries". Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 4.11 (2022): 48-60.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 Tapas Kumar Goswami., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.008

Indexed In





News and Events


Contact US