A Review on Lumpy Skin Disease: One of the Most Neglected Diseases of Cattle with an Unprecedented Incidence in Non-Endemic Countries
Tapas Kumar Goswami1* Amit Sharma2, Surendra Kumar Badasara3, Sunil Kumar Mohapatra4 and Sanjeev Kumar1
1Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Institute of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, SOA (Deemed to be University), Bhubaneswar, India
2Department of Life Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea
3Veterinary Hospital, Mahapura, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
4Department of Veterinary Biochemistry, Institute of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, SOA (Deemed to be University), Bhubaneswar, India
*Corresponding Author: Tapas Kumar Goswami, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Institute of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, SOA (Deemed to be University), Bhubaneswar, India.
June 27, 2022; Published: October 12, 2022
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) of cattle is considered to be a neglected disease that mostly remains endemic in African countries. It is caused by a pox group of viruses. Presently the disease has crossed the fence and surfaced with an unprecedented incidence in Asian countries like India Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan. As per scientific reports, several arthropod species like biting flies, mosquitoes and ticks act as mechanical vectors for the transmission of the disease. Animal-to-animal contact may also disseminate the disease as well as long-distance man-made travel of the infected animal is the source of disease transmission. Cattle and buffalo of all age groups are susceptible to this virus. The disease is not zoonotic and morbidity may rise up to 40% yet mortality is too low. Among cattle breed Bos indicus is relatively less susceptible than Bos taurus. The LSD virus is an enveloped virus having 151 kbp double stranded DNA that remain enclosed by an outer protein coat. Genome sequencing of sheep pox virus (SPV), goat pox virus (GTPV) and LSDV has given an indication that all these three viruses have a common ancestral origin with antigenic relatedness. Due to antigenic sharing serological detection of antibody may not add accuracy in diagnosis of LSD. Easily identifiable firm raised skin nodules of 2-7 cm diameter spread throughout the body typically confined to neck, leg and back region extend to tail, are the cardinal sign of LSD that hardly goes unnoticed. Histopathology, serology, virus isolation and PCR techniques are used for laboratory diagnosis. As of now no specific treatment is recommended, but to prevent any secondary infection use of antibiotic is suggested. Several homologues and heterologous vaccines are available to control the disease severity in endemic regions. Most prevalent vaccine is cell culture adapted live attenuated vaccine derived from Neethling strain of LSD virus. To prevent the infection in disease free countries few items like semen, embryo and milk should not be imported from those countries where active cases persists. Complete eradication of the LSD in resource poor countries is not feasible yet reduction in disease incidence can be achieved either with ring vaccination or mass vaccination of healthy cattle at the disease endemic area.
Keywords: Arthropod Vector; Capripox; Homologous Vaccine; Lumpy Skin Disease; Mechanical Transmission; Neethling Strain; Skin Nodules; Vaccines
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