Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences (ISSN: 2582-3183)

Review Article Volume 4 Issue 10

Nutritional Significance of Amino Acids on Enhancing Production and Health Status of Tilapia Species

E Prabu*, N Felix, Mir Ishfaq Nazir, K Manikandan, G Sathishkumar, T Thiruvasagam, A Monishkumar and K Rajalakshmi

Directorate of Incubation and Vocational Training in Aquaculture, Tamil Nadu Dr. J. Jayalalithaa Fisheries University, Muttukadu, Chennai, India

*Corresponding Author:E Prabu, Directorate of Incubation and Vocational Training in Aquaculture, Tamil Nadu Dr. J. Jayalalithaa Fisheries University, Muttukadu, Chennai, India.

Received: August 25, 2022; Published: September 22, 2022

Abstract

Aquaculture production of finfish has seen rapid growth in production volume and economic impact in the world. By 2030, aquaculture is expected to be the main source of fish, providing 50% of all fish consumed globally now. This is primarily due to consumer demand and furthermore to the diminishing wild catch fisheries. Tilapia is one of the most important fish species cultured more than 120 countries and territories around the world and contributes more than 10% of worldwide fish production. A balanced feed for fish must include satisfactory amount of all essential amino acids, fats, minerals and vitamins. Amino acids are essential for normal growth, reproduction, health and sustainable maintenance of fish metabolism. Due to high protein content, great amino acid profile, high nutrient digestibility, and absence of antinutrients, fish meal is a crucial protein source utilised to create nourishing fish feed. Replacing fishmeal is a major challenge in growing aquaculture industry to produce cost efficient feeds. Plant based ingredients are regarded as economical and nutritious protein source to replace fishmeal in aquafeed. However, concentrations of the essential amino acids are generally limited in plant based protein sources than in fish meal. Hence, providing well-balanced dietary essential amino acids in aquafeed is essential to regulate growth, health, reproduction and survival of fish.

Keywords: Amino Acids; Tilapia; Growth Performances; Health Status; Fish Meal; Requirement

References

  1. Shelton WL. “Tilapia culture in the 21st century”. In Proceedings of the International Forum on Tilapia Farming in the 21st Century (Tilapia Forum 2002). Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines: Philippines Fisheries Association Inc (2002): 1-20.
  2. Prabu E., et al. “Tilapia-An Excellent Candidate Species for World Aquaculture: A Review”. Annual Research and Review in Biology (2019): 1-14.
  3. “The state of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2018-Meeting the sustainable development goals”. Rome, Italy: FAO (2018).
  4. Neira R. “Breeding in aquaculture species: genetic improvement programs in developing countries”. In Proceedings of the 9th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production 8 (2010).
  5. Eknath AE and Hulata G. “Use and exchange of genetic resources of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)”. Reviews in Aquaculture1.3-4 (2009): 197-213.
  6. Figueiredo‐Silva C., et al. “Effect of DL‐methionine supplementation on the success of almost total replacement of fish meal with soybean meal in diets for hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis mossambicus)”. Aquaculture Nutrition2 (2015): 234-241.
  7. Koch JF., et al. “Optimizing fish meal-free commercial diets for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus”Aquaculture452 (2016): 357-366.
  8. Nguyen L and Davis DA. “Comparison of crystalline lysine and intact lysine used as a supplement in practical diets of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)”. Aquaculture 464 (2016): 331-339.
  9. Li P., et al. “New developments in fish amino acid nutrition: towards functional and environmentally oriented aquafeeds”. Amino Acids 37.1 (2009): 43-53.
  10. El-Sayed AFM. “Alternative dietary protein sources for farmed tilapia, Oreochromis spp”. Aquaculture 179.1-4 (1999): 149-168.
  11. Gatlin III DM., et al. “Expanding the utilization of sustainable plant products in aquafeeds: a review”. Aquaculture Research 38.6 (2007): 551-579.
  12. “Nutrient requirements of fish and shrimp”. Washington, DC: The National Academic Press (2011).
  13. Mente E., et al. “White muscle free amino acid concentrations following feeding a maize gluten dietary protein in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)”. Aquaculture 225.1-4 (2003): 133-147.
  14. Morales AE., et al. “Effects of dietary protein source on growth, feed conversion and energy utilization in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss”Aquaculture124.1-4 (1994): 117-126.
  15. Regost C., et al. “Partial or total replacement of fish meal by corn gluten meal in diet for turbot (Psetta maxima)”. Aquaculture180.1-2 (1999): 99-117.
  16. Pereira TG and Oliva‐Teles A. “Evaluation of corn gluten meal as a protein source in diets for gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles”. Aquaculture Research34.13 (2003): 1111-1117.
  17. Bonaldo A., et al. “Increasing dietary plant proteins affects growth performance and ammonia excretion but not digestibility and gut histology in turbot (Psetta maxima) juveniles”. Aquaculture 318.1-2 (2011): 101-108.
  18. Nunes AJ., et al. “Practical supplementation of shrimp and fish feeds with crystalline amino acids”. Aquaculture 431 (2014): 20-27.
  19. Wilson RP and Poe WE. “Relationship of whole body and egg essential amino acid patterns to amino acid requirement patterns in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus”. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Comparative Biochemistry2 (1985): 385-388.
  20. Furuya WM., et al. “Use of ideal protein concept for precision formulation of amino acid levels in fish‐meal‐free diets for juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)”. Aquaculture Research35.12 (2004): 1110-1116.
  21. Pereira TG and Oliva‐Teles A. “Evaluation of corn gluten meal as a protein source in diets for gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles”. Aquaculture Research34.13 (2003): 1111-1117.
  22. Diogenes AF., et al. “Establishing the optimal essential amino acid ratios in juveniles of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by the deletion method”. Aquaculture Nutrition 22.2 (2016): 435-443.
  23. Michelato M., et al. “Dietary histidine requirement of Nile tilapia juveniles based on growth performance, expression of muscle-growth-related genes and haematological responses”. Aquaculture467 (2017): 63-70.
  24. Furuya WM., et al. “Digestible lysine requirement of Nile tilapia fingerlings fed arginine-tolysine-balanced diets”. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia41.3 (2012): 485-490.
  25. Bomfim MAD., et al. “Lysine levels, based on the ideal protein concept, in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings”. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 39.1 (2010): 1-8.
  26. Mai K., et al. “Dietary lysine requirement of juvenile Japanese seabass, Lateolabrax japonicus”Aquaculture 258.1-4 (2006b): 535-542.
  27. Furuya WM., et al. “Digestible lysine requirements of Nile tilapia juveniles”. RevistaBrasileira De Zootecnia-Brazilian Journal of Animal Science 35.3 (2006): 937-942.
  28. Cheng ZJ., et al. “Plant protein ingredients with lysine supplementation reduce dietary protein level in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) diets and reduce ammonia nitrogen and soluble phosphorus excretion”. Aquaculture218.1-4 (2003): 553-565.
  29. Zhou XQ., et al. “Dietary lysine requirement of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio Jian)”. Aquaculture Nutrition14.5 (2008): 381-386.
  30. Harpaz S. “L-carnitine and its attributed functions in fish culture and nutrition -a review”. Aquaculture 249.1-4 (2005): 3-21.
  31. Jackson AJ and Capper BS. “Investigations into the requirements of the tilapia Sarotherodon mossambicus for dietary methionine, lysine and arginine in semi-synthetic diets”. Aquaculture29.3-4 (1982): 289-297.
  32. Takishita SS., et al. “Digestible lysine level in feed for Nile tilapia fingerlings”. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 38.11 (2009): 2099-2105.
  33. Hseu JR., et al. “Effect of exogenous tryptophan on cannibalism, survival and growth in juvenile grouper, Epinephelus coioides”Aquaculture218.1-4 (2003): 251-263.
  34. Wen H., et al. “Dietary tryptophan modulates intestinal immune response, barrier function, antioxidant status and gene expression of TOR and Nrf2 in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodonidella)”. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 40.1 (2014): 275-287.
  35. Walton MJ., et al. “The effect of dietary lysine levels on growth and metabolism of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)”. British Journal of Nutrition 52.1 (1984): 115-122.
  36. Yao K., et al. “Tryptophan metabolism in animals: important roles in nutrition and health”. Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar3 (2011): 286-297.
  37. Höglund E., et al. “Attenuation of stress-induced anorexia in brown trout (Salmo trutta) by pre-treatment with dietary L-tryptophan”. British Journal of Nutrition 97.4 (2007): 786-789.
  38. Lepage O., et al. “Time-course of the effect of dietary L-tryptophan on plasma cortisol levels in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss”Journal of Experimental Biology 206.20 (2003): 3589-3599.
  39. Tejpal CS., et al. “Dietary supplementation of L-tryptophan mitigates crowding stress and augments the growth in Cirrhinusmrigala fingerlings”. Aquaculture 293.3-4 (2009): 272-277.
  40. Vijayan MM., et al. “Metabolic effects of cortisol treatment in a marine teleost, the sea raven”. Journal of Experimental Biology 199.7 (1996): 1509-1514.
  41. Zaminhan M., et al. “Total and available tryptophan requirement of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings”. Aquaculture Nutrition 24.5 (2018): 1553-1562.
  42. Nguyen L., et al. “Tryptophan requirement in semi-purified diets of juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus”Aquaculture 502 (2019): 258-267.
  43. Zaminhan M., et al. “Dietary tryptophan requirements of juvenile Nile tilapia fed corn-soybean meal-based diets”. Animal Feed Science and Technology 227 (2017): 62-67.
  44. Cheng Z., et al. “Effects of dietary arginine and glutamine on growth performance, immune responses and intestinal structure of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus”Aquaculture319.1-2 (2011): 247-252.
  45. Pohlenz C., et al. “Effects of dietary arginine supplementation on growth, protein optimization and innate immune response of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque 1818)”. Aquaculture Research 45.3 (2014): 491-500.
  46. Oehme M., et al. “Dietary supplementation of glutamate and arginine to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases growth during the first autumn in sea”. Aquaculture 310.1-2 (2010): 156-163.
  47. Wu G., et al. “Arginine metabolism and nutrition in growth, health and disease”. Amino Acids 37.1 (2009): 153-168.
  48. Dai ZL., et al. “Regulatory role for L-arginine in the utilization of amino acids by pig small-intestinal bacteria”. Amino Acids43.1 (2012): 233-244.
  49. Buentello JA and Gatlin III DM. “Nitric oxide production in activated macrophages from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus): influence of dietary arginine and culture media”. Aquaculture 179.1-4 (1999): 513-521.
  50. Andersen SM., et al. “Functional amino acids in fish health and welfare”. Frontiers in Bioscience 8 (2016): 143-169.
  51. Neu D., et al. “Growth performance, biochemical responses, and skeletal muscle development of juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fed with increasing levels of arginine”. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society47.2 (2016): 248-259.
  52. Yue Y., et al. “Effects of dietary arginine on growth performance, feed utilization, haematological parameters and non‐specific immune responses of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)”. Aquaculture Research46.8 (2015): 1801-1809.
  53. Mai K., et al. “Dietary methionine requirement of large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaenacrocea R”. Aquaculture253.1-4 (2006a): 564-572.
  54. Walton MJ., et al. “Methionine metabolism in rainbow trout fed diets of differing methionine and cystine content”. The Journal of Nutrition112.8 (1982): 1525-1535.
  55. Khan MA and Abidi SF. “Dietary methionine requirement of Indian major carp fry, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton) based on growth, feed conversion and nitrogen retention efficiency”. Aquaculture Research 44.2 (2013): 268-281.
  56. Wu GY and Thompson JR. “Is methionine transaminated in skeletal muscle?” Biochemical Journal1 (1989): 281.
  57. Finkelstein JD., et al. “Methionine metabolism in mammals. The methionine-sparing effect of cystine”. Journal of Biological Chemistry 263.24 (1988): 11750-11754.
  58. Rumsey GL., et al. “Methionine and cystine requirements of rainbow trout”. The Progressive Fish-Culturist 45.3 (1983): 139-143.
  59. Sveier H., et al. “Dietary inclusion of crystalline D-and L-methionine: Effects on growth, feed and protein utilization, and digestibility in small and large Atlantic salmon (Salmon salar)”. Aquaculture Nutrition 7.3 (2001): 169-181.
  60. He JY., et al. “The effect of dietary methionine concentrations on growth performance of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets with two different digestible energy levels”. Aquaculture Nutrition 23.1 (2017): 76-89.
  61. Nguyen TN and Allen Davis D. “Methionine requirement in practical diets of juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus”Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 40.3 (2009): 410-416.

Citation

Citation: E Prabu., et al. “Nutritional Significance of Amino Acids on Enhancing Production and Health Status of Tilapia Species". Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 4.10 (2022): 74-83.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 E Prabu., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.008

Indexed In





News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is June 25, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US