Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences (ISSN: 2582-3183)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 8

Proximate, Anti-Nutritional and Ascorbic Acid Composition of Baobab Fruit Pulp Meal and its Efficiency in Ameliorating the Impact of Heat Stress on Growth and Blood Indices of Broiler Chicks

RJ Wafar, Ojinnaka PE and Ndubuisi DI*

Department of Animal Production and Health, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: Ndubuisi DI, Department of Animal Production and Health, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria.

Received: July 04, 2022; Published: July 26, 2022

Abstract

Background: As global warming is getting severe, the environmental temperature has continued to rise in the recent years. Heat stress disrupts the performance, physiological, hormones and behavioural attributes of chickens, hence antioxidants are required in micro quantities to counter the deleterious effect of reactive oxygen species [ROS] during heat stress.

Aim: A study was conducted to investigate the nutrient and anti-nutrient compositions of Baobab fruit pulp meal [BFPM] as source of organic ascorbic acid and its ameliorative effect on broiler chicks during heat stress. A total of two hundred and fifty-six, day old Cobb 500 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to four experimental treatments [0, 68, 136 and 204 mgAA/kg], with four replicates each in a completely randomized design. All the data that was generated during the study was subjected to general linear model of SAS and means were compared using Tukey’s procedure.

Results: Results indicated that BFPM contains substantial amount of nutrients with limited anti-nutritional factors. Growth performance of broiler chicks were similar [p > 0.05] across the treatments except for FCR which was better [p < 0.05] for birds feed the control diet [1.39g] and 68 mgAA/kg [1.40g]. Feed cost/kg gain was least for birds feed the control diet. Haematological parameters were similar [p > 0.05] and within normal physiological ranges. Serum indices were similar except for low density lipoprotein [LDL] and Alanine Amino-Transferase [ALT]. Chicks fed 68 [111.00 mg/dL] and 136 [123.50 mg/dL] mgAA supplemented diet had higher [p < 0.05] values of LDL than other treatments while ALT was higher in chicks fed 136 [55.50 μ/L] mgAA supplemented diet. Cortisol was down-regulated [p < 0.05] in chicks fed both the control [6.0 ng/mL] and 68 [4.8 ng/mL] mgAA supplemented diet. Thyroxine was similar [p > 0.05] in all groups.

Conclusion: Ascorbic acid content of BFPM in this study did not negatively affect the growth and haematology of broiler chicks except for FCR. Supplementation of BFPM at 68 and 136 mgAA/kg in the diet of broiler chicks during heat stress conditions improved LDL. ALT and cortisol was also improved in chicks fed diet supplemented with 68 mg of ascorbic acid. BFPM can be used as excellent source of ascorbic acid in the diet of broiler chicks during hot temperatures to alleviate the deleterious effect free radicals.

Keywords: Ascorbic Acid; Baobab; Growth; Haematology; Serum; Temperature

References

  1. “Livestock and poultry. World markets and trade”. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, Washington, DC (2012).
  2. Gregory NG. “How climatic change could affect meat quality”. Food Research International7 (2010): 1866-1873.
  3. Ali MN., et al. “Recovery from adverse effects of heat stress on slow-growing chicks using natural antioxidants without or with sulphate”. International Journal of Poultry Science 2 (2010): 109-117.
  4. Abdulrashid M., et al. “Ascorbic Acid and Heat Stress in Domestic Chicken Nutrition: A Review”. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences2 (2010): 249-257.
  5. Adeosun, SL. “Effects of synthetic ascorbic acid and baobab Fruit pulp meal supplementation as sources of Ascorbic acid in layer and broiler diets during Cool-wet and hot-dry seasons”. A PhD thesis submitted to the Department of Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. (2012): 74.
  6. Institute for Agricultural Research Metrological Stations, (IARMS). “Metrological data from IAR Metrological Station”. Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria (2019)
  7. National Research Council “Nutrient requirement of poultry”. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Ninth Edition (1994).
  8. AOAC “Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Official Methods of Analysis”. 15th Edition Washington DC (1990).
  9. Price ML., et al. “A critical evaluation of reaction as assay for tannin in sorghum grain”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 26 (1978): 1214-1218.
  10. Oke OL. “Chemical studies of some Nigerian vegetables”. Tropical Science (1966): 3.
  11. Reddy NR., et al. “The Phytate in Cereal and Legumes”. Boca Raton, F.L. Press CRC (1989): 154.
  12. Hudson BJ and El-Difrawi EA. “The sapogenins of the seeds of the four Lupin spp”. Journal of Plants and Food 3 (1979): 181-186.
  13. Lamb GN. “Manual of Veterinary Laboratory Technique”. CIBA-GEIGY, Kenya (1991) 96-107.
  14. Atawodi SE. “Evaluation of the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of methanolic extract of “Ata-ofa” polyherbal tea (A-Polyherbal) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats”. Drug Invent Today. 3 (2011): 270-276.
  15. Abebi H. “Catalase in methods of enzymatic analysis”. By bergmeyer, HU Verlag Chemie, New York, (1974): 673-684.
  16. Fridovich I. “Superoxide dismutases. An adaptation to a paramagnetic gas”. Journal Biology and Chemistry 264 (1989): 7761-7764.
  17. Rajagopalan R., et al. “Comparative effects of curcumin and an analog of curcumin on alcohol and PUFA induced oxidative stress”. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 83 (2004): 2747-2752.
  18. Foster L. and Dunn R. “Single antibody technique for radioimmunoassay of cortisol in unextracted serum or plasma”. Clinical Chemistry 20 (1974): 365.
  19. Chopra IJ., et al. “A radioimmunoassay of thyroxine”. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology (1971)33: 865.
  20. Statistical Analysis System (S.A.S). “Statistical Analysis System Institute, User’s Guide”. Version 9 for Windows. North Carolina, U.S.A (2002).
  21. Magdi AO. “Chemical and nutrient of Baobab (Adansonia digitata)”. Fruit and Seed Protein Solubility in Plant Food for Human Nutrition 59 (2004): 29-33.
  22. Manfredini S., et al. “Anti-oxidant capacity of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp and leaves”. Acta Phytotherapeutica2 (2002): 2-7.
  23. Muhammad AS., et al. “Effects of ascorbic acid on weight gain and haematological profile of broiler chickens”. ATBU, Journal of Science, Technology and Education (JOSTE)1 (2016): 127-133.
  24. Lohakare JD., et al. “Effects of vitamin C and vitamin D interactions on the performance, immunity and bone characteristics of commercial broilers”. Journal of Applied Poultry Research4 (2005): 670-678.
  25. Talebi E and Khademi M. “Combination Effects of Ascorbic Acid and Glucose in Drinking Water on The Broiler Performance Under Acute Heat Stress”. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology 1 (2011): 92-96.
  26. Youssef A., et al. “Enhancing tolerance of broiler chickens to heat stress by supplementation with vitamin E, vitamin C and/or probiotics.” Annual Animal Science 4 (2017): 1155-1169.
  27. Simrak S., et al. “Haematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical value on the thai indigenous chicken”. Journal of Science and Technology5 (2004): 425-430.
  28. Altan O., et al. “Effects of heat stress on some blood parameters in broilers”. Turkish Journal of Veterinary Animal Science 24 (2000): 145-148.
  29. Eggum BO. “Blood urea” Cheesbrough M. (1999): “District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries”. 1999 Edition” Cambridge University Press, Edinburgh Building Cambridge, U.K. Measurement as a technique for assessing protein quality. British Journal of Nutrition 4 (1986): 983-988.
  30. Isikwenu JO and Omeje SI. “The effects on the blood, carcass and organs of finisher broilers fed groundnut cake diets replaced with urea-treated and fermented brewer’s dried grains”. Agricultural Journal 1 (2007): 64-70.
  31. Adenkola, AY., et al. “Comparative Studies Ascorbic Acid and Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces against Heat-Stress Inclusion in Broiler Chicken”. Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences2 (2016): 17-23.
  32. Alaeldein M., et al. “Effect of Natural Vitamin C on Performance and Certain Haemato-Biochemical Values in Broiler Chickens Exposed to Heat Stress”. Pakistain Journal of Zoology3 (2018): 951-955.
  33. Louis R and Caplan MD. “Imaging and Laboratory Diagnosis”. Caplan’s Stroke Edition. Fourth edition (2009): 87.
  34. Sorensen LT., et al. “Effect of smoking, smoking cessation, and nicotine patch on wound dimension, vitamin C, and systemic markers of collagen metabolism”. Surgery 148 (2010): 982-990.
  35. Gross WB and Siegel HS. “Evaluation of the heterophil/Lymphocyte Ratio as a measure of stress in chickens”. Journal of Avain Diseases4 (1983): 972-979.
  36. Melissa G. “White blood cells in Dogs and Cats”. University of Illinois. Urbana Champaign (2015).
  37. Goodwin MA., et al. “Blood glucose values and definations for hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia in clinically normal broiler chicks”. Avaian Disease4 (1994): 861-865.
  38. Lin H., et al. “Effects of diet and stress mimicked by corticosterone administrationon early post mortem muscle metabolism of broiler chickens”. Poultry Science 86 (2007): 545-554.
  39. Ismail IB., et al. “Oxidative stress biomarkers and biochemical profile in broilers chicken fed Zinc Bacitracin and Ascorbic acid under hot climate”. American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology2 (2013): 202-214.
  40. Khan SH and Sardar R. “Effect of vitamin supplementation on the performance of Desi, Fayoumi and commercial white leghorn chicken exposed to heat stress”. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 25 (2005): 163-166.
  41. Bharavi K., et al. “Reversal of cadmium induced oxidative stress in chicken by herbal adaptogens Withania Somnifera and Ocimum Sanctum”. Toxicology 17 (2010): 59-63.
  42. Cinar M., et al. “Cadmium induced changes on growth performance, some biochemical parameters and tisse in broiler: Effects of vitamin C and vitamin E”. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 6 (2011): 923-934.
  43. El-Habbak MM., et al. “Influence of dietary vitamin E and C supplementation on the performance and some metabolic response of broiler chicks subjected to heat stress”. World Journal of Agricultural Science 7 (2011): 258-269.
  44. Konca Y., et al. “Effects of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation on growth performance, carcass, bone quality and blood parameters in broilers during natural summer temperature”. Asian Journal of Animal Veterinary Advance, 4 (2009): 139-147.
  45. Rashidi AA., et al. “Effects of dietary fat, vitamin E and zinc on immune response and blood parameters of broiler reared under heat stress”. Research Journal of Poultry Science2 (2010): 32-38.
  46. Abdelrafea A., et al. “Physiological, Biochemical and Histopathological Changes of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and Vitamin C Supplementation in Broiler Chicks Diets”. Journal of Animal Science 9.2 (2013): 316-333.
  47. Seyrek K., et al. “Effects of dietary vitamin C supplementation on some biochemical parameters of laying Japanese quails exposed to heat stress (34.8 0C)”. Revue Medical Veterinary 156 (2004): 339-342.
  48. Abidin Z and Khatoon A. “Heat stress in poultry and the beneficial effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) supplementation during periods of heat stress”. World's Poultry Science Journal 69 (2013): 135-152.
  49. Sotler R., et al. “Prooxidant activities of antioxidants and their impact on health”. Acta Clinica Croatica4 (2019): 726-736.
  50. Mahmoud UT., et al. “Effects of propolis, ascorbic acid and vitamin e on thyroid and corticosterone hormones in heat stressed broilers”. Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research 1 (2014): 18-27.
  51. Poungpong K., et al. “Effect of gallotannoids on the productive performance and stress index of broiler chickens under stress conditions”. International Journal of Poultry Science 18 (2019): 63-68.
  52. Mosleh N. et al. “Effect of different periods of chronic heat stress with or without vitamin C supplementation on bone and selected serum parameters of broiler chickens”. Avian Pathology2 (2018): 197-205.
  53. Mitruka BM and Rawnsley HM. “Clinical, Biochemical and Haematological Reference Value in Normal Experimental Animals”. Mason Publishing Company, New York (1997): 35-50.
  54. Simrak S., et al. “Haematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical value on the thai indigenous chicken”. Journal of Science and Technology5 (2004): 425-430.
  55. Jain NC. “Schalm Veterinary Haematology”. 4th edition Philadelphia, Lea and Ferbinger. Journal of Applied Poultry Research (1986): 203-209.
  56. Jain NC. “Essentials of veterinary hematology”. 1st Lea and Febiger Publication, Philadelphia (1993): 589-595.
  57. Goodwin MA., et al. “Blood glucose values and definations for hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia in clinically normal broiler chicks”. Avaian Disease4 (1994): 861-865.
  58. Ross JG., et al. “Determination of haematology and blood chemistry values in healthy six-week old broiler hybrids”. Avian Pathology4 (1976): 273-281.
  59. LAVC “Clinical Pathology in Avian Species”. Latin American Veterinary Congress (LAVC), Lima, Peru (2009).
  60. Bounous DI and Stedman NL. “Normal Avian Haematology, Chicken and Turkey”. In Feldman, B.F., Zinkl, J.G. and Jain, N.C.: Schalm’s Veterinary Haematology. Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins (2000): 1145-1154.
  61. Clinical Diagnostic Division. “Veterinary Reference Guide”. Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York (1990).
  62. Collins A. “Cholesterol in chicken”. Solomons, G.T.W. Organic Chemistry (4th) John Wiley and Sons, New York (2018): 270-273.

Citation

Citation: Gayathri S Lal., et al. “On Farm Diagnostics and Preventive Measures for Mastitis in Dairy Bovines Category: Review Article". Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 4.8 (2022): 158-169.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 Gayathri S Lal., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.008

Indexed In





News and Events


Contact US