Review on the Morphological Structures and Histological Features
of the Respiratory System in Birds
Ektifaa Shakir Khayoon*
Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad, Iraq
*Corresponding Author: Ektifaa Shakir Khayoon, Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
June 28, 2022; Published: July 25, 2022
The goal of these reviews was to identify the morphological structures and histological features of the bird’s respiratory system. The respiratory system of the birds consists of the nasal openings, nasal passage, larynx, trachea, syrinx, bronchi, lungs and air sacs. The beak s base holds the nostrils. The nasal and oral parts there are division of pharynx and has a single cavity; oropharynx because the soft palate not present, the upper, middle and lower conchae were found, the rings of trachea were complete, the syrinyx situated at the division of the trachea, the lungs were not lobulated and were fixed in the position, causing them unable to contract and expand in the respiration, absence of the diaphragm, the air sacs extended to the bones and these were have the ability to contact and expand with the respiration. The epithelia which lined the air ways, nasal cavity, larynx, trachea, syrinx and primary bronchi were ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium, but simple cuboidal in the smallest airways. Lamina propria contain loose connective tissues, associated with lymphoid tissues, muscularis mucosa consists of the smooth muscle tissues. There are five types of the epithelial cells can be found that are columnar cells which considered the most abundant type, goblet cells, brush cells that were regarded as a receptor cells, and basal cells as a small rounded, can be differentiated into the other mentioned cell types. Small granule cells have numerous granules; constitute a population of cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system. The submucosa consists of loose connective tissues accompanied with serous and mucous glands which are absent in the tertiary bronchi. Tunica muscularis contains the outer longitudinal smooth muscles fibers and circular layer internally. Tunica adventitia is a light coat constructed from loose connective tissues filled with blood vessels.
Keywords: Birds; Respiratory System; Glands; Mucosa; Muscularis
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