Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences (ISSN: 2582-3183)

Review Article Volume 4 Issue 8

Review on the Morphological Structures and Histological Features of the Respiratory System in Birds

Ektifaa Shakir Khayoon*

Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad, Iraq

*Corresponding Author: Ektifaa Shakir Khayoon, Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad, Iraq.

Received: June 28, 2022; Published: July 25, 2022

Abstract

The goal of these reviews was to identify the morphological structures and histological features of the bird’s respiratory system. The respiratory system of the birds consists of the nasal openings, nasal passage, larynx, trachea, syrinx, bronchi, lungs and air sacs. The beak s base holds the nostrils. The nasal and oral parts there are division of pharynx and has a single cavity; oropharynx because the soft palate not present, the upper, middle and lower conchae were found, the rings of trachea were complete, the syrinyx situated at the division of the trachea, the lungs were not lobulated and were fixed in the position, causing them unable to contract and expand in the respiration, absence of the diaphragm, the air sacs extended to the bones and these were have the ability to contact and expand with the respiration. The epithelia which lined the air ways, nasal cavity, larynx, trachea, syrinx and primary bronchi were ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium, but simple cuboidal in the smallest airways. Lamina propria contain loose connective tissues, associated with lymphoid tissues, muscularis mucosa consists of the smooth muscle tissues. There are five types of the epithelial cells can be found that are columnar cells which considered the most abundant type, goblet cells, brush cells that were regarded as a receptor cells, and basal cells as a small rounded, can be differentiated into the other mentioned cell types. Small granule cells have numerous granules; constitute a population of cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system. The submucosa consists of loose connective tissues accompanied with serous and mucous glands which are absent in the tertiary bronchi. Tunica muscularis contains the outer longitudinal smooth muscles fibers and circular layer internally. Tunica adventitia is a light coat constructed from loose connective tissues filled with blood vessels.

Keywords: Birds; Respiratory System; Glands; Mucosa; Muscularis

References

  1. Kabak M., et al. “The gross anatomy of larynx, trachea and syrinx in the long-legged buzzard (Buteo rufinus)”. Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia 36 (2007): 27-32.
  2. Dyce KM., et al. “Textbook of Veterinary Anatomy.4th edition”. Saunders Elseveir (2010): 799-804.
  3. King AS. “Functional Anatomy of the Syrinx. In: Form and Function in Birds”. edit by King AS, McLelland J. London, Academic Press 4 (1989): 105-182.
  4. Duncker HR. “The respiratory apparatus of birds and their locomotors and metabolic efficiency”. The Journal of Ornithology 141 (2000): 1-67.
  5. Demirkan AC., et al. “Gross morphological Features of the nasal cavity in Japanese quail”. Ankara Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi 54 (2007 a): 1-5.
  6. Yokosuka M., et al. “Morphological and histochemical study of the nasal cavity and fused olfactory bulb of the brown eared bulbul, (hysipetes amaurotis)”. Zoological Science 26 (2009): 713-721.
  7. Bang BG. “Functional anatomy of the olfactory system in 23 orders of birds”. Acta Anatomica 79 (1971): 1-76.
  8. Bang BG., et al. “Nasal Cavity and Olfactory System. In: Form and Function in Birds by (A. King and J. McLelland, eds.)”. Academic Press, London 3 (1985): 195-225.
  9. Al-Ghakany SSA. “Anatomical study of the primary bronchi and the lung in yellow-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus goiavier)”. International Journal of Advanced Research 3 (2015): 818-822.
  10. Khaksar Z., et al. “Study on anatomy and histological structure of larynx in adult male and female turkeys”. World Journal of Zoology7 (2012): 245-250.
  11. Samuelson DA. “Text book of Veterinary Histology”. Saunders Elsevier. (2007): 246-248.
  12. Auda DA. “Anatomical, histological studies of the respiratory system of the common J. quail ( coturnix L)”. M.S. Thesis Basrah Uni. Vet. Med. College (2007): 34-55.
  13. Demirkan AC., et al. “Gross morphological and histological features of larynx, trachea and syrinx in Japanese quail”. Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia 36 (2007 b): 215-219.
  14. AL-Mahmodi AM., “Macroscopic and morphometric studies of the extra pulmonary primary bronchi and lungs of the indigenous adult male pigeon (Columba domestic)”. Kufa Journal for Veterinary Medical 3 (2012): 19-26.
  15. Brown C., et al. “The morphology of the syrinx in the Charadriiformes (Aves): Possible phlogentic”. Bonner zoologische Beiträge2 (1990): 95-107.
  16. Khalifa EF. “Anatomical studies on the lung the air sacs in domestic geese (Anser domesticus)”. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences 2 (2015): 157-165.
  17. El-Bably S., et al. “Gross morphological studies on the air sacs of golden pekin duck (Anas platyrhyncha)”. The Haryana Veterinarian 53 (2014): 13-17.
  18. AL-Medhtiy MHM. “Histological study of the larynx in indigenous male west african guinea fowl (Numida meleagris galeata)”. KufaJournal for Veterinary Medical Sciences 5 (2014): 200-206.
  19. Eurell JC. “Veterinary Histology. Teton New Media”. (2004): 48- 49.
  20. Al-Mussawy AMM “Anatomical and histological study of major respiratory organs (larynx, trachea, syrinx, bronchi and lungs) in indigenous male turkey (Meleagris gallopava)”. MSc. Thesis. Al-Qadisiya College of Veterinary Medicine - University (2011): 35-55.
  21. Al-Umeri SKW., et al “Grossly and microscopic study of primary bronchi and lungs of wood pigeon (Columba palumbus)”. Kufa Journal forVeterinary Medical Sciences 4 (2013): 72-79.
  22. AL-Bishtue AAH. “Anatomical investigations of the syrinx (voice box) of the adult male west african guinea fowl (Numida meleagris galeata) in the AL-Najaf AL-Ashraf province”. Al-Qadisiyah Journal ofVeterinary Medicine Sciences 13 (2014): 100-105.
  23. AL-Aameli MH. “Histomorphological study of the larynx, syrinx and primary bronchi in male and female black francolin (Francolinus francolinus)”. in Iraq. Ph. D. Thesis. Baghdad Uni. Vet. Med. College (2015): 40-70.
  24. Ince NG., et al. “Anatomical features of the syrinx in sea gulls”. Ankara Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi 59 (2012): 1-3.
  25. AL-Badri AMS., et al. “Macroscopic study of syrinx in the common bulbul (Pycnontus barbatus) and indigenous pigeon (Columba domestica)”. Al-Qadisiyah Journal ofVeterinary Medicine Sciences 13 (2014): 88-93.
  26. Demirkan AC., et al. “Air sacs (sacci pneumatici) in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)”. Ankara Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi 53 (2006 a): 75-78.
  27. Demirkan AC., et al. “Gross morphological features of the lung and air sac in japanese quail”. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 68 (2006b): 909-913.
  28. Al-Mamoori NA., et al. “Anatomical and morphometric study of the trachea in bee-eater bird (Merops orientalis)”. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science 8 (2015): 58-61.
  29. AL-Mussawy AM., et al. “Histological study of the trachea in indigenous male turkey (Meleagris gallopava)”. Al-Qadisiyah Journal ofVeterinary Medicine Sciences 11 (2012): 100-106.

Citation

Citation: Ektifaa Shakir Khayoon. “Review on the Morphological Structures and Histological Features of the Respiratory System in Birds". Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 4.8 (2022): 113-116.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 Ektifaa Shakir Khayoon. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.008

Indexed In





News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is June 25, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US