Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Pigs Fed Diets Containing
Urea-Molasses Treated Rice Husk as a Replacement for Wheat Offal
Mafimidiwo AN1, Williams GA2*, Mafimidiwo ZT3, Rabiu LA1, Adesanya OF3, Sule R1, Agba CD1 and Rosiji CO4
1Department of Agricultural Technology, Yaba College of Technology, Lagos, Nigeria
2Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture, Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria
3Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria
4College of Health Technology, Ilese, Ijebu, Ogun State, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Williams GA, Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture, Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria.
June 27, 2022; Published: July 12, 2022
The use of non-conventional fibrous feed stuff in pig nutrition to reduce cost requires strategies to increase its utilisation due to its low nutrient content and poor digestibility. This study investigated the effect of graded levels of urea-molasses treated rice husk (UMTRH) as replacement for wheat offal in diet of growing pigs. A total of 60 pigs of about 8 - 10 kg weight were used to investigate the growth performance and carcass characteristics. Pigs were allotted on weight equalisation basis into five dietary treatments. The pigs were randomly allotted into 15 pens and each treatment contained 12 pigs consisting of 3 replicates of 4 pigs each. The diets formulated consists of a standard basal diet Control; (wheat offal based without treated rice husk) and treated rice husk was used to replace wheat offal at 25, 50, 75, and 100% replacement levels in a standardized grower pigs diet. Performance data was collected at the end of 8th and 16th week of the study while carcass measurement was done at the end of 16th week. Cut parts and organs were expressed as % of live weight (% LW). Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance in a completely randomized design. At 8 weeks, total weight gain (TWG) was higher (P < 0.05) for pigs fed control diet (22.25 kg) and those fed diets containing 25% (22.17 kg) and 50% (21.42 kg) UMTRH than those fed diet with 100% (19.42 kg) UMTRH. 25% inclusion of UMTRH in the diet of pigs resulted in better (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR). At 16 weeks, the inclusion 25% UMTRH resulted in improved (P < 0.05) weight gain comparable to the control while pigs fed diet with 100% UMTRH had reduced (P < 0.05) weight gain (21.00 kg). Pigs fed diet with 100% UMTRH had reduced (P < 0.05) dressing percentage (67.59%) compared to that of the control. It was concluded that inclusion of 75% UMTRH supports weight gain of pigs like that of the control diet with comparable dressing percentage.
Keywords: Pigs; Rice Husks; Urea-Molasses; Growth Performance; Carcass
- Fabiyi EF. “Adoption of improved soybean technologies in processing and utilization as supplement with local foods in Bauchi local government area of Bauchi State, Nigeria”. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture4 (2015): 223-230.
- Aminu FO., et al. “Urban household demand for animal protein in Lagos state. Implications for Agricultural investments in Nigeria”. Proceedings of the conference of the National Association of agricultural Economists held at Federal University of Technology, Owerri. Nigeria (2016): 1139-1153.
- Iyangbe CO and Orewa SI. “Determination of daily protein intake among rural and low-income urban household in Nigeria Geography”. American-Eurasian Journal of Science Research4 (2009): 290-301.
- World Health Organization. “Protein and amino acids requirements in human nutrition”. Report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU Experts consultation, Technical Report Series 935 (2018): 1-265.
- Amata IA. “The use of non-conventional feed resources (NCFR) for livestock feeding in the tropics. A Review”. Journal of Global Biosciences2 (2018): 604-613.
- Jirgi DJ and Abeke FO. “Nutritive evaluation of different energy sources in broiler chicken diets under the tropical climate of Nigeria”. Nigerian Journal of Animal production3 (2018): 248-251.
- Adesheinwa AOK. “Energy and protein requirements of pigs and the utilization of fibrous feedstuff in Nigeria: A review”. African Journal of Biotechnology25 (2008): 4798-4806.
- Herr CT., et al. “Evaluating variable feed energy levels for growing pigs”. Department of Animal Science, Purdue University Swine Day (2000).
- Gidenne T and Michalet-Doreau H. “Microbial activity in the caecum of the rabbit around weanling; Impact of a dietary fibre deficiency and of intake level”. Animal Feed Science and Technology1-4 (2002): 107-118.
- Asar MA., et al. “Utilization of corn-cob meal and Faba bean straw in growing rabbit diet and their effects on performance, digestibility and economic efficiency”. Egypt Poultry Science 30 (2010): 415-442.
- Makinde OJ., et al. “Growth performance and carcass characteristics of finisher broilers fed rice offal-based diets supplemented with exogenous enzyme”. Greener Journal of Agricultural Science4 (2014): 144-149.
- Osamu Kanauchi., et al. “ Digestive disease research center and Oppenheimer family center for neurobiology of stress, Digestive disease division”. University of California, Los Angeles, V.A Greater Los Angeles Health care system. U.S.A (2014).
- Fadaei V and Salehifar M. “Stylosantis and cassava leaves as protein supplements to a basal diet of broken rice for local pigs”. Livestock Research for Rural Development 16 (2012): 1-9.
- Amaefule KY., et al. “Digestibility and nutrient utilization of some Agro-industrial by-products fed to growing pigs in the humid Tropics”. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition4 (2009): 355-360.
- Ojai UI., et al. “Effects of Urea and aqueous ammonia treatment on the composition and nutritive value of maize residue”. Small Ruminant Research1-3 (2007): 232-236.
- Mafimidiwo AN., et al. “Carcass characteristics of weaner rabbits fed graded levels of urea-molasses treated maize cob as a replacement for wheat offal”. Proceedings of the 47th Annual conference of Nigerian Society for Animal Production, March 13th -17th at University of Jos, Nigeria (2022): 1669-1673.
- Ubwa ST., et al. “Studies on Urea treated rice milling waste and its application as animal feed”. African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry2 (2014): 23-31.
- Blair R. “Nutrition and feeding of organic pigs”. Cabi Series, CABI, Wallingford, UK (2007).
- Sheikh GG., et al. “Effect of feeding urea molasses treated rice straw along with fibrolytic enzymes on the performance of Corriedale Sheep”. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies6 (2007): 2626-2630.
- Google Earth. “Earthmaps”. Online map finder (2021).
- National Research Council (NRC). “Nutrient Requirements of Swine”. 11th National Academies Press, Washington DC (2012).
- Akinfemi A and Adebayo BJ. “Effect of urea on chemical composition and in-vitro digestibility of maize cobs”. Proceedings of 41st Annual Conference of Nigerian Society for Animal Production, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria (2016): 496-498
- AOAC (Association of Analytical Chemist). “Official methods of Association of Official Analytical chemist international, 17th edition”. Washington, D.C. USA (2000).
- Van Soest PJ. “Review: rice straw, the role of silica and treatments to improve quality”. Animal Feed Science and Technology 130 (2006): 137-171.
- Wright JS., et al. “Predicting the activity of phenolic antioxidants: Theoretical method, analysis of substituent effects and application to major families of Antioxidants”. Journal of the American Chemical Society6 (2001): 1173-1183.
- Arvouet-Grand A., et al. “Standardization d’uneextrait de propolis et identification des principaux constituents”. Journal de Pharmacie de Belgique 49 (1994): 462-468.
- Hoff JE and Singleton KI. “A method for determination of tannins in foods by means of immobilized protein”. Journal of Food Science 42 (1977): 6.
- Edeoga HO., et al. “Phytochemical Constituents of some Nigerian Medicinal Plants”. African Journal of Biotechnology7 (2005): 685-688.
- Jensen JF. “Methods of Dissection of Broiler Carcasses and Description of Parts”. Cambridge, UK: Papworth’s Pendragon Press (1984): 32-61.
- Duncan DB. “Multiple range and multiple F tests”. Biometrics 11 (1995): 1-42.
- “Statistical Analysis System, Statistical Methods”. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC (1999).
- Ngoc TTB., et al. “Chemical characterization and water holding capacity of fibre-rich feedstuffs used for pigs in Vietnam”. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Science 25 (2012): 861-868.
- Thi Thu Hong T., et al. “Effect of Fermented Rice Bran and Cassava Waste on Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Crossbred Pigs”. World Journal of Agricultural Research5 (2016): 132-138.
- Gonzalez-Alvarado JM., et al. “Effect of fiber source and heat processing of the cereal on the development and pH of gastrointestinal tract of broilers fed diets based on corn or rice”. Poultry Science 87 (2008): 1779-1795.
- Onyimonyi AE and Okeke GC. “Carcass, organ and pathological characteristics of grower pigs fed cassava peel meal”. Journal of Agriculture Food Environment and Extension1 (2005): 1-4.
- Njoku CP., et al. “Growth performance, carcass yield and organ weight of growing pigs fed different levels of feed”. Slovak Journal of Animal Science1 (2015): 16-22.
- Unigwe CR., et al. “Carcass, Organ Weights and Histo-morphology of Internal Organs of Sows Fed Fermented and Enzyme Supplemented Cassava Peels Meal (CPM) Based Diets”. Journal of Plant and Animal Sciences1 (2017): 026-036.