Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Guanidinoacetic Acid in Soybean or Canola Meal Based Diets on Growth Performance and Development of Ascites in Broiler Chickens
Shahabodin Zafari Naeini*, Fariborz Khajali, Behnam Ahmadipour and Hosein Hassanpour
Department of Animal Science, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Shahabodin Zafari Naeini, Department of Animal Science, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.
June 13, 2022; Published:
This study assessed the effects of dietary supplementation of Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA; commercial form CreAMINO®) in soybean (SBM) or canola meal (CM) based diets on performance, carcass characteristics, ascites mortality, blood and plasma parameters, internal organ, gut morphology and ascites indices in broiler chickens raised under the hypobaric and cold condition for 42-days. Also, tried to determine the ability of CM to serve as a dietary replacement for SBM for growing and finishing stages of broilers.
A total of 600 male broilers (Ross 308) reared at high altitudes under cool conditions. A Maize-SBM based diet were formulated for the starting (1 to 10d of age; without GAA supplement for all birds), SBM and CM diets for the growing (11 to 24d of age; used GAA) and the finishing (25 to 42 d of age; used GAA) stages according to Nutrition Specifications for ROSS 308 (target live weight 2.50 - 3.00 kg) recommendations. This experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design that chicks were allocated to 8 treatments with 5 replicates of 15 birds. The 8 diets were (1) SBM, (2) SBM+ 0.6g/kg GAA, (3) SBM + 1.2g/kg GAA, (4) SBM + 2.4g/kg GAA and (5) CM, (6) CM + 0.6g/kg GAA, (7) CM + 1.2g/kg GAA, (8) CM + 2.4g/kg GAA.
Feed Conversation Ratio (FCR) in all individual stages and overall (42 d) was not affected by adding GAA to SBM diets, while FCR of birds fed on CM diet was worse than SBM and even was exacerbated with high levels (2.4g/kg) of GAA in overall study period, significantly. The development of ascites in broiler chickens fed on CM diet containing 0.6 or 1.2g GAA/kg was lower than other CM based diets. Adding GAA had not significant impact on abdominal fat and thigh yield in neither SBM nor CM groups. The carcass yield was not affected by diet protein source (SBM or CM) or adding GAA (0.6 and 1.2g/kg diet; P > 0.05) but adding 2.4g/kg GAA to the CM diets decreased this parameter, dramatically. In contrast, breast yield increased in SBM group by adding GAA (P < 0.05for 0.6 and 2.4g/kg diet). The weight of liver and heart were decreased with inclusion of GAA at level 1.2g/kg for CM diets. Enrichment of diets with GAA alleviated the adverse effect of Hypobaric-cold stress as reflected by reduction in blood haematocrit, Malondialdehyde (MDA), Heterophil/lymphocyte and right ventricle to total ventricle ratio (RV/TV) at 42 d of age. Addition of GAA (0.6g/kg for SBM and 1.2 or 2.4g/kg for CM groups) to the diet of birds reared under Hypobaric-cold stress resulted in a higher jejunal villus surface area compared to those fed on control diets.
The results of this research indicate that GAA supplementation of diets did not affect performance of birds fed SBM based diet as well as CM diets, but adding the high level of GAA (2.4g/kg) in the CM based diet exacerbated the adverse effect of hypobaric and cold stress on performance, gut development and ascites syndrome, significantly. In addition, GAA supplementation at 1.2g/kg improved RV:TV, heart weight, haematocrit, MDA, NO in birds fed on CM based diet and raised under hypobaric and cold condition, while higher levels of GAA had mortal effects on broilers in CM groups.
Keywords: Performance; Guanidinoacetic Acid; Blood Indices; Gut Health; Canola; Pulmonary Hypertension
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