Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences (ISSN: 2582-3183)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 7

Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Guanidinoacetic Acid in Soybean or Canola Meal Based Diets on Growth Performance and Development of Ascites in Broiler Chickens

Shahabodin Zafari Naeini*, Fariborz Khajali, Behnam Ahmadipour and Hosein Hassanpour

Department of Animal Science, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran

*Corresponding Author: Shahabodin Zafari Naeini, Department of Animal Science, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.

Received: June 13, 2022; Published:


This study assessed the effects of dietary supplementation of Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA; commercial form CreAMINO®) in soybean (SBM) or canola meal (CM) based diets on performance, carcass characteristics, ascites mortality, blood and plasma parameters, internal organ, gut morphology and ascites indices in broiler chickens raised under the hypobaric and cold condition for 42-days. Also, tried to determine the ability of CM to serve as a dietary replacement for SBM for growing and finishing stages of broilers.

A total of 600 male broilers (Ross 308) reared at high altitudes under cool conditions. A Maize-SBM based diet were formulated for the starting (1 to 10d of age; without GAA supplement for all birds), SBM and CM diets for the growing (11 to 24d of age; used GAA) and the finishing (25 to 42 d of age; used GAA) stages according to Nutrition Specifications for ROSS 308 (target live weight 2.50 - 3.00 kg) recommendations. This experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design that chicks were allocated to 8 treatments with 5 replicates of 15 birds. The 8 diets were (1) SBM, (2) SBM+ 0.6g/kg GAA, (3) SBM + 1.2g/kg GAA, (4) SBM + 2.4g/kg GAA and (5) CM, (6) CM + 0.6g/kg GAA, (7) CM + 1.2g/kg GAA, (8) CM + 2.4g/kg GAA.

Feed Conversation Ratio (FCR) in all individual stages and overall (42 d) was not affected by adding GAA to SBM diets, while FCR of birds fed on CM diet was worse than SBM and even was exacerbated with high levels (2.4g/kg) of GAA in overall study period, significantly. The development of ascites in broiler chickens fed on CM diet containing 0.6 or 1.2g GAA/kg was lower than other CM based diets. Adding GAA had not significant impact on abdominal fat and thigh yield in neither SBM nor CM groups. The carcass yield was not affected by diet protein source (SBM or CM) or adding GAA (0.6 and 1.2g/kg diet; P > 0.05) but adding 2.4g/kg GAA to the CM diets decreased this parameter, dramatically. In contrast, breast yield increased in SBM group by adding GAA (P < 0.05for 0.6 and 2.4g/kg diet). The weight of liver and heart were decreased with inclusion of GAA at level 1.2g/kg for CM diets. Enrichment of diets with GAA alleviated the adverse effect of Hypobaric-cold stress as reflected by reduction in blood haematocrit, Malondialdehyde (MDA), Heterophil/lymphocyte and right ventricle to total ventricle ratio (RV/TV) at 42 d of age. Addition of GAA (0.6g/kg for SBM and 1.2 or 2.4g/kg for CM groups) to the diet of birds reared under Hypobaric-cold stress resulted in a higher jejunal villus surface area compared to those fed on control diets.

The results of this research indicate that GAA supplementation of diets did not affect performance of birds fed SBM based diet as well as CM diets, but adding the high level of GAA (2.4g/kg) in the CM based diet exacerbated the adverse effect of hypobaric and cold stress on performance, gut development and ascites syndrome, significantly. In addition, GAA supplementation at 1.2g/kg improved RV:TV, heart weight, haematocrit, MDA, NO in birds fed on CM based diet and raised under hypobaric and cold condition, while higher levels of GAA had mortal effects on broilers in CM groups.

Keywords: Performance; Guanidinoacetic Acid; Blood Indices; Gut Health; Canola; Pulmonary Hypertension


  1. Ahmadipour B., et al. “Growth performance and right ventricular hypertrophy responses of broiler chickens to guanidinoacetic acid supplementation under hypobaric hypoxia”. Journal of Poultry Science 55 (2018): 60-64.
  2. Al-Daraji HJ., et al. “Influence of in ovo injection of L-arginine on productive and physiological performance of quails”. Research Opinions in Animal and Veterinary Sciences 7 (2011): 463-467.
  3. Andrew RP and NA Baldar. “Amino acid analysis of feed constituent”. Science Tools 32 (1985): 44-48.
  4. Brosnan JT., et al. “Creatine synthesis is a major metabolic process in neonatal piglets and has important implications for amino acid metabolism and methyl balance”. Journal of Nutrition 139 (2009): 1292-1297.
  5. Corzo A., et al. “Arginine need of heavy broiler males: applying the ideal protein concept”. Poultry Science 82 (2003): 402-407.
  6. Costa EF., et al. “Studies on feeding peanut meal as a protein source for broiler chickens”. Poultry Science 80 (2001): 306-313.
  7. Dersjant-Li Y., et al. “A direct fed microbial containing a combination of three-strain Bacillus Can be used as an alternative to feed antibiotic growth promoters in broiler production”. Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition 2 (2014): 1-6.
  8. Dilger RN., et al. “Dietary guanidino acetic acid is an efficacious replacement for arginine for young chicks”. Poultry Science 92 (2013): 171-177.
  9. Emami NK., et al. “Interactive effects of temperature and dietary supplementation of Arginine or Guanidinoacetic acid on nutritional and physiological responses in male broiler chickens”. British Poultry Science (2017).
  10. FAO: The Food and Agriculture Organization. FAOSTAT (2016).
  11. Fossati PP., et al. “Use of 3, 5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzene sulfonic acid/4-aminophenazone chromogenic system in the direct enzymic assay of uric acid in serum and urine”. Clinical Chemistry 26 (1980): 227-231.
  12. Havenstein GB., et al. “Growth, livability, and feed conversion of 1957 versus 2001 broilers when fed representative 1957 and 2001 broiler diets”. Poultry Science 82 (1957): 1500-1508.
  13. Heger J., et al. “Effects of guanidinoacetic acid supplementation to broiler diets with varying energy content”. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis 62 (2014): 477-485.
  14. Hortelano S., et al. “Nitric oxide is released in regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy”. Hepatology 21 (1995): 776-786.
  15. Izadinia M., et al. “Pulmonary hypertension and ascites as affected by dietary protein source in broiler chickens reared at high altitudes”. Animal Feed Science and Technology 155 (2010): 194-200.
  16. Julian RJ. “Ascites in poultry (review article)”. Avian Pathology 22 (1993): 419-454.
  17. Julian RJ. “Physiological, management and environmental triggers of the ascites syndrome: A review”. Avian Pathology 29 (2000): 2519-2527.
  18. Kaushik N., et al. “High performance liquid chromatographic method for separation and quantification of intact glucosinolates”. Chromatographia 49 (1999): 281-284.
  19. Khajali F and S Fahimi. “Influence of dietary fat source and supplementary α-tocopheryl acetate on pulmonary hypertension and lipid peroxidation in broilers”. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 94 (2010): 767-772.
  20. Khajali F., et al. “An L-arginine supplement improves broiler hypertensive response and gut function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude”. International Journal of Biometeorology 58 (2014): 1175-1179.
  21. Khajali F and BA Slominski. “Review, Factors that affect the nutritive value of canola meal for poultry”. Poultry Science 91 (2012): 2564-2575.
  22. Khajali F., et al. “Effects of supplementation of canola meal-based diets with Arginine on performance, plasma nitric oxide, and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens grown at high altitude”. Poultry Science 90 (2011): 2287-2294.
  23. Khajali F and RF Wideman. “Dietary arginine: Metabolic, environmental, immunological and physiological interrelationships”. Worlds Poultry Science 66 (2010): 751-766.
  24. Khajali F., et al. “Application of an early skip-a-day feed restriction on blood parameters and development of ascites in broilers under regular or cold temperatures”. Animal Science Journal 78 (2007): 159-163.
  25. Lucas AM and C Jamroz. “Atlas of avian hematology”. Agriculture monograph 25 (Washington, DC, US Department of Agriculture) (1961).
  26. Mansoori B., et al. “The effect of tannic acid on the excretion of endogenous methionine, histidine and lysine with broilers”. Animal Feed Science and Technology 134 (2007): 198-210.
  27. Meng X., et al. “Degradation of cell wall polysaccharides by combinations of carbohydrase enzymes and their effect on nutrient utilization and broiler chicken performance”. Poultry Science 84 (2005): 37-47.
  28. Michiels J., et al. “Supplementation of guanidinoacetic acid to broiler diets: effects on performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and energy metabolism”. Poultry Science 91 (2012): 402-412.
  29. Moore S and WH Stain. “Chromatographic determination of amino acids by the use of automatic recording equipment”. Methods in Enzymology 6 (1963): 819-831.
  30. Mousavi SN., et al. “Effects of guanidinoacetic acid supplementation to broiler diets with varying energy contents”. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 22 (2013): 47-54.
  31. Murakami AE., et al. “The effect of arginine dietary supplementation in broiler breeder hens on offspring humoral and cell-mediated immune responses”. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola 6 (2014): 63-72.
  32. Mushtaq T., et al. “Influence of Canola Meal-Based Diets Supplemented with Exogenous Enzyme and Digestible Lysine on Performance, Digestibility, Carcass, and Immunity Responses of Broiler Chickens”. Poultry Science 86 (2007): 2144-2151.
  33. Nair V and GA Turner. “The thiobarbituric acid test for lipid peroxidation: structure of the adduct with malondialdehyde”. Lipids 19 (1980): 804-805.
  34. National Research Council. “Nutrient requirements of poultry”. National Academies Press, Washington (1994).
  35. Newkirk RW and HL Classen. “The effects of toasting canola meal on body weight, feed conversion efficiency, and mortality in broiler chickens”. Poultry Science 81 (2002): 815-825.
  36. Ostojic SM. “Guanidinoacetic acid as a performance‑enhancing agent”. Amino Acids 48 (2016): 1867-1875.
  37. Ruiz-Feria CA., et al. “Plasma levels of arginine, ornithine, and urea and growth performance of broilers fed supplemental L-arginine during cool temperature exposure”. Poultry Science 80 (2001): 358-369.
  38. Saedi M and F Khajali. “Provision of dietary sodium from sodium bicarbonate and time of its inclusion into broiler diets at high altitude region: Impact on blood gas values and pulmonary hypertension”. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 58 (2010): 379-388.
  39. Scott G and C Bolton. “L-arginine modifies free radical production and the development of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis”. Inflammation Research 49 (2000): 720-726.
  40. Sharifi MR., et al. “L-Arginine supplementation of reduced-protein diets improves pulmonary hypertensive response in broiler chickens reared at high altitude”. British Poultry Science 56 (2015): 470-476.
  41. Shaul PW. “Regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase: Location, location, location”. Annual Review of Physiology Palo Alto 64 (2002): 749.
  42. Toghyani M., et al. “Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of expeller-extracted canola meal subjected to different processing conditions for starter and grower broiler chickens”. Poultry Science 94 (2015): 992-1002.
  43. Tufarelli V., et al. “Performance, gut morphology and carcass characteristics of fattening rabbits as affected by particle size of pelleted diets”. Archives of Animal Nutrition 64 (2010): 373-382.
  44. Varmaghany S., et al. “Effect of olive leaves on ascites incidence, hematological parameters and growth performance in broilers reared under standard and cold temperature conditions”. Animal Feed Science and Technology 185 (2013): 60-69.
  45. Waguespack AM., et al. “Effect of incremental levels of L-lysine and determination of the limiting amino acids in low crude protein Maize-soybean meal diets for broilers”. Poultry Science 88 (2009): 1216-1226.
  46. Wallimann T., et al. “The creatine kinase system and pleiotropic effects of creatine”. Amino Acids 40 (2011): 1271-1296.
  47. Wang LS., et al. “Effects of guanidinoacetic acid on growth performance, meat quality and antioxidation in growing-finishing pigs”. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 11 (2012): 631-636.
  48. Wideman RF., et al. “Pulmonary arterial hypertension (ascites syndrome) in broilers: A review”. Poultry Science 92 (2012): 64-83.
  49. Wu LY., et al. “Dietary L-arginine supplementation beneficially regulates body fat deposition of meat-type ducks”. British Poultry Science2 (2011): 221-226.
  50. Yang SJ and DM Denbow. “Interaction of leptin and nitric oxide on food intake in broilers and Leghorns”. Physiology Behavior 92 (2007): 651-657.
  51. Yuan C., et al. “L-arginine upregulates the gene expression of target of rapamycin signaling pathway and stimulates protein synthesis in chicken intestinal epithelial cells”. Poultry Science 94 (2015): 1043-1051.
  52. Zamani Moghaddam AK., et al. “Oral supplementation with vitamin C improves intestinal mucosa morphology in the pulmonary hypertensive broiler chicken”. British Poultry Science 50 (2009): 175-180.


Citation: Shahabodin Zafari Naeini., et al. “Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Guanidinoacetic Acid in Soybean or Canola Meal Based Diets on Growth Performance and Development of Ascites in Broiler Chickens". Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 4.7 (2022): 00-00.


Copyright: © 2022 Shahabodin Zafari Naeini., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.008

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is June 25, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US