The Mechanisms of Anti-Diarrhoeal Activities of Some Derived Partitions of Anacardium Occidentale Leaf Extract
Ifenkwe DC*, Madubuike KG and Onoja SN
Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Ifenkwe DC, Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria.
December 29, 2021; Published: June 20, 2022
Aim: This study was designed to unearth the probable mechanism of action (in vitro- on isolated rabbit jejunum) of the anti-diarrhoeal properties of methanol, chloroform, and pet ether derived partitions from Anacardium occidentale leaf extract.
Methods: The rabbit jejunum of about 2-3 cm long was dissected out, placed on a Petri dish containing freshly prepared and oxygenated Tyrode solution at room temperature. The tissue was mounted and allowed to record its basal rhythmic contraction for 2 minutes before the effect of each partitioned extract was evaluated at different concentrations. The effects of standard autonomic modification drugs, acetylcholine, histamine, and the muscarinic inhibitor atropine sulphate at different concentrations were investigated in the presence/absence of varying concentrations of each partitioned extract. The data obtained were analysed using Graph pad Statistical package.
Results: The in vitro results showed that the different partitions of A. occidentale leaves provoked relaxing effect on acetylcholine- and histamine- induced contractions of isolated rabbit jejunum, which portrayed a concentration dependent effect across the various percentages investigated. It was observed that whereas, the partitions at all concentrations studied, partially inhibited acetylcholine-induced smooth muscle contractions, the histamine receptors where completely blocked, indicating more of an antihistamine than anticholinergic mechanism of controlling diarrhoea for A. occidentale extract. The chloroform partition possessed potent active principles with overt anti-diarrhoeal activities principally via intestinal smooth muscle relaxation better than other partitions.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the different partitioned extracts of A. occidentale leaves has shown good anti-diarrhoeal effects, principally via the histaminic pathway. Hence, lending some credence to the scientific claim that A. occidentale leaves can be used to control diarrhoea.
Keywords: Anacardium Occidentale; Extract Partitions; Anti-Diarrhoea; Antihistamine; Anti-Cholinergic
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