Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences (ISSN: 2582-3183)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 7

Effects of Alkali Treated Groundnut Shells Supplemented with Xylanase in Rations of Yankasa Rams on Haematological and Serum Biochemical Indices

Millam JJ1*, Abdu SB2, Yashim SM1 and Adamu HY1

1Department of Animal Production, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Adamawa, Nigeria
2Department of Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: Millam JJ, Department of Animal Production, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Adamawa, Nigeria.

Received: May 26, 2022; Published: June 15, 2022


Sixteen yearling Yankasa rams with a mean weight of 17 ± 0.68 kg were used to assess its haematology and serum biochemical indices fed rations containing treated groundnut shells supplemented with xylanase. The rations were compounded to contain the treated groundnut shells as UTGNS, UGNS, ULGNS and ULGNS with xylanase supplementation and fed to four rams per group in a completely random design. Feed and water were supplied without restriction. Blood was collected from the jugular vein for the determination of haematological and serum biochemistry parameters. The results observed showed that there were significant (p < 0.05) effects amongst the treatments involved. Most of the blood parameters measured were within normal reference range of values recommended for healthy sheep. The PCV, Hb, RBC and lymphocyte values were higher (p < 0.05) in LGNS (36.50%, 12.1g/dL, 12.27 × 1012/L, and 85%, respectively). White blood cells and eosinophil values were higher (p < 0.05) in ULGNS (7.9 ×109/L and 2% respectively) while neutrophils and monocytes were higher (p < 0.05) in UTGNS (26%) and UGNS (5%) respectively. Alanine aminotransferase (18.5 U/L) and glucose (4 mmol/L) values were higher (p < 0.05) in UTGNS. Total protein (7.57 g/dL) and albumin (2.77g/dL) were higher (p < 0.05) in LGNS while BUN (5.8 mmol/L) and creatinine (135.07 µmol/L) values were higher (p < 0.05) in ULGNS. From the results of the present study, it could be concluded that alkali treated groundnut shells with xylanase supplementation in rations of Yankasa rams did not have disastrous effects on blood or organ health throughout the trial.

Keywords: Exogenous enzyme; Haematology; Lime; Serum biochemistry; Sheep; Urea


  1. JJ Millam., et al. “Xylanase and glucanase supplementation on growth performance and blood profile of Yankasa rams fed crop residues”. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences 5 (2020): 166-172.
  2. BO Otu., et al. “Growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens fed diets containing varying inclusion levels of dried watermelon rind at the starter phase”. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production 3 (2021): 134-141.
  3. JJ Millam., et al. “Growth Performance and Serum Biochemical Profile in Yankasa Rams Fed Alkali-Treated Groundnut Shells”. FUDMA Journal of Sciences 3 (2020): 52-59.
  4. JJ Millam. “Effects of urea and lime treated groundnut shell in mixed diets on nutrient intake and in situ degradation in Yankasa rams”. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (2016).
  5. K Abid., et al. “Effect of treating olive cake with fibrolytic enzymes on feed intake , digestibility and performance in growing lambs”. Animal Feed Science and Technology 1 (2020): 1-8.
  6. AA Abdel Hameed., et al. “Growth Performance and Rumen Fermentation of Lambs Fed Untreated or Urea Treated Groundnut Hull with Different Protein Sources”. Journal of Animal Production Advances 3 (2013): 86-96.
  7. AT Adesogan., et al. “Symposium review: Technologies for improving fiber utilization”. Journal of Dairy Science 6 (2019): 5726-5755.
  8. JJ Millam and SB Abdu. “Chemical Composition and Ruminal Degradation of Urea and Lime Treated Groundnut Shells in Yankasa Rams”. in Proceedings of 42nd Annual Conference of the Nigerian Society for Animal Production (NSAP), 26th-30th March 2017, Landmark University (2017): 394-397.
  9. P McDonald., et al. “Animal Nutrition, 7th edition”. Harlow, England: Prentice Hall (2010).
  10. AA Nayawo., et al. “Serum Biochemical Profiles of Fattening Yankasa Rams Fed Diets Containing Different Proportions of Urea Treated Rice Straw and Gamba Hay”. International Journal of Earth Sciences 7 (2017): 18-23.
  11. NI Wada., et al. “Variation in haematological and serum biochemical indices of sheep fed Ziziphus mucronata and Parkia biglobosa (A comparative study)”. Global Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Health Sciences 4 (2014): 39-47.
  12. E Maltz and N Silanikove. “Kidney Function and Nitrogen Balance of High Yielding Dairy Cows at the Onset of Lactation”. Journal of Dairy Science 9 (1996): 1621-1626.
  13. Weather Station. “Weather Report for Mubi Climate: Department of Geography, ADSU-Mubi.”. Adamawa State University (ADSU), Mubi (2021).
  14. A Can., et al. “Determining Effect of Lime and Urea Treatment on Crude and Digestible Nutrient Content of Wheat Straw”. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 7 (2004): 479-482.
  15. MR Al-masri and KD Guenther. “Changes in digestibility and cell-wall constituents of some agricultural by-products due to gamma irradiation and urea treatments”. Radiation Physics and Chemistry 55 (1999): 323-329.
  16. (Association of Analytical Chemist) “AOAC, Official Method of Analysis, 17th edition”. Maryland, USA: AOAC International (2005).
  17. MM Benjamin. “Outline of Veterinary Clinical Pathology”. Kalyani Publishers: New Delhi, India (1985).
  18. PB Hawk. “Hawk’s physiological chemistry, 14th edition”. London: McGraw Hill Book Company (1965).
  19. E Ahmadov., et al. “Determination of the Activity of ALT and AST Enzymes of Blood in the Sheep Infected with Helminthes Toxicology : Open Access”. Toxicology1 (2018): 10-12.
  20. GE Beach and TD Turner. “Toxicology”. Oxford England: Oxford University Press (1975).
  21. RJ Henry and C Stobel. “Determination of serum protein by burette reaction”. Journal of Analytical Chemistry 92 (1957): 1491-1497.
  22. GN Lamb. “Manual of veterinary laboratory technique. Kenya: CoBA- GEIGY (1991).
  23. RJ Tannins and AW Maylor. “Physical and chemical studies of a low molecular weight form of cheese”. Biochemical Journal 77 (1968): 324-358.
  24. (Statistical Analysis Systems) SAS. “Statistical Package for Analysis”. Statistical Analysis Systems Institute, Cary, North Carolina, USA (2002).
  25. SE Fielder. “Normal reference ranges for blood profiles of various animals”. MSD Veterinary Manual (2015).
  26. YA Beigh., et al. “Hemato-biochemcial characteristics of lambs on dietary feed additives (exogenous fibrolytic enzymes, Artemisia absinthium) supplementation”. Comparative Clinical Pathology 27.6 (2018): 1473-1485.
  27. N Rivero., et al. “Influence of Salix babylonica extract, exogenous enzyme of xylanase and their combination on blood haematological and biochemical profile in sheep and goats”. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 10 (2016): 1140-1144.
  28. CO Osita., et al. “Hematological and Biochemical Indices of West African Dwarf Sheep Fed Diets Containing Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), Grass, Grass/Legume (50:50) and Legume”. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 1 (2018): 34-41.
  29. “Quick test interpretations”. College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University (2020).
  30. WC Chen. “Different Types of Blood Cells and Their Roles in the Human Body”. SciCom MIT (2005).
  31. AJ Amuda and DO Okunlola. “Haematological Parameters and Serum Biochemistry of West African Dwarf Sheep Fed Ensiled Maize Stover and Concentrate Supplements”. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science 5 (2018): 57-63.
  32. AA Njidda., et al. “Haematological and Serum Biochemical Indices of Sheep in Semi-Arid Environment of Northern Nigeria”. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research 2 (2014): 48-56.
  33. JA Ayoade., et al. “Performance, haematology and serum biochemistry of grazing Bunaji bulls supplemented varying levels of agro industrial by-product based diet”. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science 8 (2015): 95-100.
  34. T Egbe-Nwiyi., et al. “Haematological Values of Apparently Healthy Sheep and Goats as Influenced by Age and Sex in Arid Zone of Nigeria”. African Journal of Biomedical Research 32 (2000): 109-115.
  35. K Chirkena., et al. “Hematological Parameters of sheep: An Aid in the Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal (GIT) and Respiratory Diseases”. Natural Sciences 5 (2016): 97-102.
  36. M Acharya., et al. “Changes in hematology, serum biochemistry, and gastrointestinal nematode infection in lambs fed sericea lespedeza with or without dietary sodium molybdate”. Journal of Animal Science 93 (2015): 1952-1961.
  37. MK Rahman., et al. “Determination of hematological and serum biochemical reference values for indigenous sheep (Ovies aries) in Dhaka and Chittagong Districts of Bangladesh”. Veterinary World8 (2018): 1089-1093.
  38. A Omidi., et al. “A preliminary study on antioxidant activities of saffron petal extracts in lambs”. Veterinary Science Development 5161 (2014): 22-25.
  39. Portea Medical. “Diagnostic test” (2019).
  40. JJ Millam., et al. “Alkali Treated Groundnut Shells with Xylanase in Rations of Yankasa Rams on Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility”. International Journal of Earth Sciences 2 (2021): 39-48.
  41. YA Beigh., et al. “Blood metabolic profile of lambs fed complete diet supplemented with exogenous fibrolytic enzymes cocktail”. Journal of Animal Health and Production 4 (2018): 96-102.
  42. N Rivero and AZM Salem. “Biochemical parameters in sheep fed diet in presence of mixed Salix babylonica extract and exogenous enzyme as feed additives”. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 2 (2015): 189-194.


Citation: Millam JJ., et al. “Effects of Alkali Treated Groundnut Shells Supplemented with Xylanase in Rations of Yankasa Rams on Haematological and Serum Biochemical Indices". Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 4.7 (2022): 61-68.


Copyright: © 2022 Millam JJ., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.008

Indexed In

News and Events

Contact US