Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences (ISSN: 2582-3183)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 6

Bacteria Isolated from the Liver of Agama Lizards Found Around Poultry Pens in Zaria, Nigeria

Olufisoye O Ojo*, Buzu B Shedrack and James S Sambo

Department of Veterinary public health and preventive medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: Olufisoye O Ojo, Department of Veterinary public health and preventive medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Received: May 09, 2022; Published: May 27, 2022

Abstract

This study was designed to evaluate an aspect of biosecurity in poultry pens by investigating the possible liver pathogens in lizards and their role as pathogen reservoirs and transmitters to poultry. 100 Agama Lizards were caught randomly around poultry Pens in Zaria, Nigeria. In this study Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium species were isolated from 67% and 13% of the livers respectively. Each Lizard was humanely euthanized. A small block of the livers were harvested into sterile polythene bags and preserved in a freezer for microbiological culture and isolation. Bacteria were isolated and identified based on standard cultural, morphological and biochemical methods. It can be concluded that lizards harbor bacteria pathogens and giving them free access into poultry could be counterproductive. They are a potential source of infection to poultry by fecal shedding and even indirectly to humans through meat and egg consumption. Therefore, strict biosecurity practices should be maintained so as to prevent the entry of lizards into poultry pens.

Keywords: Agama Lizard; Bacteria; Liver; Staphylococcus; Corynebacterium; Poultry

References

  1. Hilgris R. "Agama agama" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web (2000).
  2. Harris V. “The life of the rainbow Lizard”. London, England: Hutchison Tropical Monographs (1964).
  3. Ogunleye AO., et al. “Characterization of a Salmonella enterica serotype pullorum isolated from a lizard co-habitating with poultry”. African Journal of Microbiology Research 14 (2013): 1215-1221.
  4. Kourany M., et al. “Panamanianamphibians and reptiles as carriers of Salmonella”. American Journal of Medicine and Hygiene 19 (1970): 632-638.
  5. Kourany M and Telford SR. “Lizards in the ecology of salmonellosis in Panama”. Applied Environmental Microbiology 41 (1981): 1248-1253.
  6. Singh BR., et al. “Antimicrobial and herbal drug resistance in enteric Bacteria isolated from faecal Droppings of common house Lizard/ geko (Hemidactylus fenatus)”. International Journal of Microbiology (2013).
  7. Gigani HC., et al. “Salmonellae and other enteropathogenic bacteria in the intestines of wall geckos in Nigeria”. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek52 (1986): 117-120.
  8. Ajayi JO., et al. “Bacteria Isolated from the Oral and Cloaca Swabs of Lizards Co-habitating with Poultry in Some Poultry Farms in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria”. African Journal of Biomedical Research 18 (2015): 211- 215.
  9. Otokunefor T., et al. “Salmonellain gut and droppings of three pest lizards in Nigeria”. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 19 (2003): 545-548.
  10. Nwachukwu MJ., et al. “Incidence of pathogenic bacteria in wall gecko dropping”. Intraspecific Journal of Microbiology and Life Sciences2 (2014): 001-006.
  11. Kumar A and Sharma VK. “Enterobacteria of emerging pathogenic significance from clinical cases in man and animals and detection of toads and wall lizards as their reservoirs”. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek2 (1978): 219-228.
  12. Oboegbulem SI and AU Iseghohimhen. “Wall geckos (Geckonidae) as reservoirs of Salmonellae in Nigeria: problems for epidemiology and public health”. International Journal of Zoonoses3 (1985): 228-232.
  13. Downes S and Borges P. “Sticky traps: an effective way to capture small terrestrial lizards”. Herpetological Reviews 29 (1998):
  14. Green CJ. “Euthanasia. Chapter 10. In: Laboratory Animals: An Introduction for New Experimenters, (ed A.A. Tuffery)”. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK (1987): 171-177.
  15. Leanne C Alworth., et al. “Laboratory Reptile Surgery: Principles and Techniques”. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science1 (2011): 1-16.
  16. Barrow GH and Feltham RKA. “Cowan and Steel’s manual for identification of medical bacteria, 3rd edition”. Cambridge. UK. Cambridge University Press (1993): 331.
  17. Garcia LS and Isenberg HD. “Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook Vol. 1, Second edition”. update ASM Press American Society for Microbiology 1752 N St., N.W. Washington, DC 20036-290 (2007).
  18. Poornima M and AS Upadhye. “Bacterial flora of respiratory tract of poultry in health and disease”. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Science 29 (1995): 68-72.
  19. Awan MA and M Matsumoto. “Heterogeneity of Staphylococci and Other Bacteria Isolated from Six-Week-Old Broiler Chickens”. Poultry Science 77 (1998): 944-949.
  20. Sobti DK., et al. “Isolation and charecterisation of Haemophilus paragallinarum and morphoculturally related organisms-from cases of infectious coryza in Mahakaushal belt”. The Indian Veterinary Journal11 (2001): 987-989.
  21. Kaur Jaswinder., et al. “Epidemiological Studies on Infectious coryza in Chickens in Norther India”. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences5 (2004): 462-465.
  22. Gayatri Rajurkar., et al. “Incidence of Mixed Infection in Coryza Cases”. Veterinary World12 (2009): 462-464.
  23. Youssef FM., et al. “Advanced Bacteriological Studies on Bumblefoot Infections in Broiler Chicken with Some Clinicopathological Alteration”. Veterinary Science Research1 (2019): 01-10.
  24. Fetsch A and Johler S. “Staphylococcus aureusas a Foodborne Pathogen”. Current Clinical Microbiology Reports 5 (2018): 88-96.
  25. Enurah LU., et al. “An Outbreak of Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Infection in Broiler Chickens in Lagos, Nigeria An Outbreak of Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Infection in Broiler Chickens in Lagos, Nigeria”. Global Journal of Medical Research: G Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine Volume 16 Issue 1 Version 1.0 Year 2016 Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research Journal Publisher: Global Journals Inc. (USA) (2016).

Citation

Citation: Olufisoye O Ojo., et al. “Bacteria Isolated from the Liver of Agama Lizards Found Around Poultry Pens in Zaria, Nigeria". Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 4.6 (2022): 58-61.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 Olufisoye O Ojo et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.008

Indexed In





News and Events


Contact US