A Monograph on Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) and Alternatives Strategies to Counter AMR
Assistant Professor, Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College
of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad
*Corresponding Author: Anilkumar Banothu, Assistant Professor, Department
of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar,
March 29, 2022; Published: April 29, 2022
Antimicrobial agents have been used in human beings, livestock and aquatic animals for life saving against the various disease
caused by the infectious organisms like bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungus and cancerous cells since Second World War. Over a period
of time, many antimicrobial agents have been invented by scientists and at the same time organism also started to develop resistance
to the existed antimicrobial agents which happened due to mainly misuse or inappropriate usage of antimicrobial agents. Nontherapeutic
usage of antibiotics also leads to the development of superbugs that are resistant to many of the existing antibiotics. Further,
mutation of gene within the bacteria and passing the resistant (R) gene through horizontal gene transfer could viable method for
the contribution of development of resisntance. In this monograph discussed the genetical and biochemical mechanism of development
of resistance by the bacteria and also delineate alternative strategies likes use of phytochemicals, probiotics, biofilm breakers,
vaccine, antimicrobial peptide, nano particles, monoclonal antibodies, quarum quencher, anti peristance, lantibiotics, etc., are the
possibilities to counter antimicrobial resistance.
Keywords: Monograph; Antimicrobial Resistancel; Alternatives Strategies; AMR
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