Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Salmonella from Fish Harvested
from Haramaya Lake, Eastern Ethiopia
Daniel Fikre, Sufiyan Musa Abdulahi*, Muhammad Hamid and Jabir
Department of Veterinary Public Health, Haramaya University, Ethiopia
*Corresponding Author: Sufiyan Musa Abdulahi, Department of Veterinary
Public Health, Haramaya University, Ethiopia.
February 16, 2022; Published: April 08, 2022
The present study was conducted from January 2021 to August 2021 to identify Salmonella and assess the hygienic handling practices along fish market chain from Batu town to eastern part of Ethiopia. A total of 406 different sample sources were randomly sampled and included in the study and examined for salmonella. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were used to analyses data. The sample obtained were cultured on XLD agar and those samples found positive by XLD agar were further tested by biochemical tests for confirmation. The finding of the study revealed that, among total 310 examined samples, 45 (14.5%) were positive for Salmonella which comprises; 5 (16%), 7 (22.58%), 5 (16%), 13 (41.9%) and 2 (6.45%) of Gill, GIT, Oral, Surface and filleted fish samples respectively, showing statistically significant variation in the prevalence of Salmonella among sample sources; filleted fish (OR = 8.75; CI = 1-76; p value = 0.049). In addition, 45 were positive for Salmonella from which; 31 (17%) and 13 (10.48%) were obtained from Lake and Haramaya town respectively, having statistically significant (p-value < 0.05) variation in the occurrence of Salmonella along fish value chain (OR = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.1-4.7; p-value = 0.024). In-vitro antimicrobial resistance profile of 45 Salmonella isolates were subjected to the seven antimicrobial drug disks. All of the Salmonella isolated were resistant to Amoxicillin (97.8%), Vancomycin (93.3%), Ampicillin (100%), Tetracycline (93.3%) followed by Erythromycin (53.3%), Chloramphenicol (46.7%). However the susceptibility profile of Gentamycin were 100% followed by 17.8% of, Chloramphenicol and 4.4% Erythromycin Whereas, Erythromycin, Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline, Vancomycin Amoxicillin Kanamycin, Vancomycin and Ampicillin were intermediate susceptible by 42.2%, 35.6%, 6.7%, 6.7%, and 2.2% respectively. All of the 45 resistant Salmonella isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). Salmonella is normally not affect fish but it use as vehicle to transit its life cycle by loaded into the surface and other organ of fish which is causing infection in human through cross contamination during handling and eating of improperly cooked fish (like asa- lebleb). However the community was not awareness this aggravate people for infection. Besides, the knowledge, attitude and practices of fish handlers were founded to be poor. Thus, urgent intervention program is essential to minimize the risk associated with consumption of fish contaminated with Salmonella and prudent use of antimicrobials is recommended.
Keywords: Aquaculture; Drug Resistance; Fish; Lake Haramaya; Salmonell
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