Clinico-Pathological Manifestations of Aqueous Extract of Kolanut Nitida on
Barde Israel Joshua1*, Igboa Oziegbe Paul2, Abubakar Sadiq Abubakar2, Ishaku Leo Elisha1, Leo Shedua Nyam1, Shekaro Audu1, Logyang Lot Emmanuel1, Suleiman Isa1, Ugbe Dominic Aondona1 and Ngulukun Sati Samuel1
1Department of Diagnostic Veterinary Pathology, National Veterinary Research Institute, P.M.B. 01 Vom, Plateau, Nigeria
2Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology, Vom, Plateau, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author:Barde Israel Joshua, Department of Diagnostic Veterinary Pathology, National Veterinary Research Institute, P.M.B. 01 Vom, Plateau, Nigeria.
February 21, 2022; Published: March 02, 2022
Background: This study investigated the clinical and pathological manifestations of kola nut on puppies. Kola nut which contains caffeine is used in some regions in Nigeria particularly the south-south to poison stray dogs.
Materials and Methods: Aqueous extracts of Kola nut nitida was administered to dogs in order to investigate the possible effects on some organs of the dogs. Four dogs were used in the treatment group whereby two doses of the extract (400 mg/Kg and 800 mg/Kg) were daily administered orally to the test animals for a period of 2 weeks.
Results: A dose related response was observed. Clinical signs observed include: excitement, polyuria, shivering, dull appearance, rough hair coat, emaciation/ body weight lost, drowsiness, tetanic convulsion, bloody diarrhea, aggressiveness, irritating mood, decreased pulse rate, decreased body temperature, decreased respiratory rate, sunken eye ball and mucoid diarrhea. Severity of gross lesions in the liver, kidney, Brain, lymph nodes and small Intestine of animals in the infected groups. The laboratory result showed that kola nut extract can be toxic to dogs following the laboratory results gotten from this study as haematology result showed that there is a difference in Red Blood cells, white blood cell, Monocyte, Pack cell volume, Neutrophils, Lymphocyte and Hemoglobin which shows hypochromic condition, while the histopathological lesions shows neuronal necrosis and pyknosis in the brain, gastric erosion with hemorrhage in intestine, necrosis of the renal tubular epithelial cells of the kidney, necrotic myocyte in the heart, thickening of the alveolar septa in the lungs and in the liver necrosis of the hepatocytes. Some of the biochemical parameters showed great statistical significance: AST, Urea, Total protein and Creatinine are high compared with the control group. These signify kidney and liver damage.
Conclusion: Despite the reported potentially beneficial effects of kola nut, its use as a medicinal plant should be with great caution because of the clinico-pathological manifestations seen in this study.
Keywords: Kola Nut; Dogs; Caffeine; Clinical Signs; Gross Lesions; Biochemical and Histopathology
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