Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences (ISSN: 2582-3183)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 3

Modern Vaccines- an Overview

H A Bharat*

Department of Veterinary Pathology, Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar, India

*Corresponding Author: H A Bharat, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar, India.

Received: November 25, 2021; Published: February 18, 2022

Abstract

Vaccines are one of the greatest inventions in modern medicine, vaccines have played a significant role in control, eradication of lethal diseases like smallpox and are responsible for the robust improvement in life expectancy over the past 2 centuries. Edward jenner pioneered the development of vaccinology by demonstrating immunity to smallpox when inouculated with cow pox scabs. The development of live attenuated vaccines and inactivated vaccines in 19th played a major role in prevention of diseases like cholera, rabies, anthrax. Early 20th century saw development of sub-unit vaccines which possessed only the antigenic part of microbe making it safer than live attenuated vaccines, with the advent of recombinant DNA technology and proteomics in the later decades of 20th century modern vaccine delivery platforms like recombinant viral vector vaccines, bacterial vector vaccines, DNA vaccines, Mrna vaccines, DNA vaccines, Outer membrane vesicles, virus like particles had a rapid growth, with many viral, bacterial vaccines being currently used and relatively newer vaccine technologies like Mrna vaccines, DNA vaccines, Virus like particles show a promising future with several vaccine candidates in development pipeline.

Keywords: Vaccines, mRNA Vaccine, DNA Vaccine, Small Pox, Recombinant DNA Technology

References

  1. Alexandra Minna Stern and Howard Marke. “The History of Vaccines and Immunization: Familiar Patterns New Challenges”. Health Affairs3 (2005).
  2. Plotkin SA. “History of Vaccine Development”. Springer, New York (2011).
  3. Plotkin SL and Plotkin SA. “A short history of vaccination. Vaccines, eds Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA. (Elsevier-Saunders, Philadelphia), 6th Ed (2013): 1-13.
  4. Chandrakant Lahariya. “A brief history of vaccines and vaccination in India”. Indian Journal of Medical Research 139 (2014): 491-511.
  5. Norbert Pardi., et al. “mRNA vaccines - a new era in vaccinology” Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery 17 (2018): 261-279.
  6. Linares-Ferna´ndez., et al. “Tailoring mRNA Vaccine to Balance Innate/Adaptive Immune Response”. Trends in Molecular Medicine3 (2019): 311-323.
  7. Ivan YC Lin., et al. “Live-Attenuated Bacterial Vectors: Tools for Vaccine and Therapeutic Agent Delivery -Review Vaccines 3 (2015): 940-972.
  8. Nicholas AC Jackson., et al. “The promise of mRNA vaccines: a biotech and industrial perspective, review article”. npj Vaccines 5 (2020): 1.
  9. Francesca Mancini., et al. “OMV Vaccines and the Role of TLR Agonists in Immune Response”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21 (2020): 4416.
  10. Michel Chartrain. “The production of plasmid Dna vaccine in Escherichia coli: a novel bacterial-based vaccine production platform”. Vaccine Development and Manufacturing 1st
  11. Bernadette Ferraro., et al. “Clinical Applications of DNA Vaccines: Current Progress”. Clinical Infectious Diseases3 (2011): 296-302.
  12. Mark W., et al. “Vaccine Development Using Recombinant DNA Technology”. CAST (2008): 38.
  13. Adilson José da Silva., et al. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology4 (2014): 1117-1129.
  14. Bhattacharya S and Jackson M. “Vaccination against smallpox in India”. London: Welcome Institute” (2005).
  15. Hajj KA., et al. “Branched-tail lipid nanoparticles potently deliver mRNA in vivo due to enhanced ionization at endosomal pH”. Small 15 (2019): 1805097.
  16. Pardi N., et al. “mRNA vaccines - a new era in vaccinology”. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 17 (2018): 261-279.
  17. Shata MT., et al. “Recent advances with recombinant bacterial vaccine vectors”. Molecular Medicine Today 6 (2000): 66-71.
  18. Carleton HA. “Pathogenic bacteria as vaccine vectors: Teaching old bugs new tricks”. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 83 (2010): 217-222.
  19. John S., et al. “Multi-antigenic human cytomegalovirus mRNA vaccines that elicit potent humoral and cell mediated immunity”. Vaccine 36 (2018): 1689-1699.
  20. Ljungberg K and Liljestrom P. “Self-replicating alphavirus RNA vaccines”. Expert Review of Vaccines 14 (2015): 177-194.
  21. Kaparakis-Liaskos M and Ferrero RL. “Immune modulation by bacterial outer membrane vesicles”. Nature Reviews Immunology 15 (2015): 375-387.
  22. Tan K., et al. “Outer Membrane Vesicles: Current Status and Future Direction of These Novel Vaccine Adjuvants”. Frontiers in Microbiology 9 (2018): 783.
  23. Liu Fuxiao., et al. “Virus-like particles: Potential veterinary vaccine immunogens”. Research in veterinary science 93 (2011): 553-559.
  24. Fuenmayor J., et al. “Production of virus-like particles for vaccines”. New Biotechnology 39 (2017): 174-180.
  25. Gómez Leonardo and Oñate Angel. “Plasmid-Based DNA Vaccines (2018).
  26. Gandhi Rajesh., et al. “Immunization of HIV-1-infected Persons with Autologous Dendritic Cells Transfected with mRNA Encoding HIV-1 Gag and Nef: Results of a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial”. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes3 (1999): 246-253.
  27. Douglas B Young. “Disease states and vaccines: selected cases: part h. Tuberculosis, Editor (s): Barry R. Bloom, Paul-Henri Lambert, The Vaccine Book, Academic Press (2003): 279-289.
  28. KL Wilson., et al. “Inflammatory/Noninflammatory Adjuvants and Nanotechnology-The Secret to Vaccine Design”. Editor (s): Mariusz Skwarczynski, Istvan Toth, In Micro and Nano Technologies, Micro and Nanotechnology in Vaccine Development, William Andrew Publishing (2017): 99-125.
  29. Ura Takehiro., et al. “Developments in Viral Vector-Based Vaccines”. Vaccines3 (2014): 624-41.

Citation

Citation: H A Bharat. “Modern Vaccines- an Overview". Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 4.3 (2022): 72-76.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 H A Bharat. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.008

Indexed In





News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is June 25, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US