Regenerative Role of l-Lysine Amino Acid on Alimentary Canal of Fresh Water Food Fish Due to Chronic Chromium Toxicity- A Lab Study
Balveer Singh Dhami*
Department of Zoology, Bareilly College, Bareilly, Utter Pradesh, India
*Corresponding Author: : Balveer Singh Dhami, Department of Zoology, Bareilly College, Bareilly, Utter Pradesh, India.
December 28, 2021; Published: January 31, 2022
The present study was carried out to investigate the preventive role of L-Lysine amino acid in chronic chromium toxicity on alimentary canal of freshwater food fish, Clarias batrachus. The trivalent and hexavalent forms of chromium are important for human health and other organisms. Chromium maintains normal glucose tolerance factor. The deficiency of chromium leads atherosclerosis in rabbits and also effects reproduction, life spawn and growth. Moreover, the deficiency of chromium leads anxiety, mental retardation, vision impairment, poor immunity, hypoglycemia and unhealthy level of cholesterol. Toxicity of chromium on liver, stomach and kidney is worked out by many workers in mammals and fish. Chromium is one of the pollutants in urban sewage. It is used in tannery, paints, steel, textiles, printing, electroplating, rubber industries, pigments, plating, fungicides, corrosion inhibitors etc. L-Lysine amino acid is an essential amino acid and used as nutritional supplements. It is essential for growth and calcium absorption from intestine. Lysine also used to prevent osteoporosis, and it is also important for collagen synthesis, hormone and antibody production. To investigate the preventive role of L-lysine in chromium toxicity, the fish was exposed to 300 ppm chromic chloride (T2) for thirty days along with control (T1). during this period, the histopathology of stomach and intestine show atrophy of gastric epithelium, reduced mucosal folds and degeneration of gastric glands. The studies with Transmission Electron Microscopy of stomach of control (T1) and treated fish (T2 and T3) were conducted. TEM shows damaged E.R., reduced parietal cells along with reduction in the number of zymogen granules. In intestine, it shows atrophy of epithelium, reduced size and fusion of villi and necrosis also observed. In the combination dose experiment (T3), the fish was given an injection of L-Lysine amino acid @ 0.4 mg/100 gm body weight per day for thirty days. During this study, an improvement was observed after thirty days treatment, and it shows the nearly normal size of mucosal folds, epithelium of gastric mucosa regenerated as normal. In combination dose (T3), after thirty days of exposure, embedding of villi, villous atrophy and villous fusion is not seen. Intestinal glands as well as intestinal mucosa were observed nearly normal.
keywords: Lysine; Trivalent Chromium; Clarias; Atrophy; TEM; Villi
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