Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences (ISSN: 2582-3183)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 2

Regenerative Role of l-Lysine Amino Acid on Alimentary Canal of Fresh Water Food Fish Due to Chronic Chromium Toxicity- A Lab Study

Balveer Singh Dhami*

Department of Zoology, Bareilly College, Bareilly, Utter Pradesh, India

*Corresponding Author: : Balveer Singh Dhami, Department of Zoology, Bareilly College, Bareilly, Utter Pradesh, India.

Received: December 28, 2021; Published: January 31, 2022

Abstract

The present study was carried out to investigate the preventive role of L-Lysine amino acid in chronic chromium toxicity on alimentary canal of freshwater food fish, Clarias batrachus. The trivalent and hexavalent forms of chromium are important for human health and other organisms. Chromium maintains normal glucose tolerance factor. The deficiency of chromium leads atherosclerosis in rabbits and also effects reproduction, life spawn and growth. Moreover, the deficiency of chromium leads anxiety, mental retardation, vision impairment, poor immunity, hypoglycemia and unhealthy level of cholesterol. Toxicity of chromium on liver, stomach and kidney is worked out by many workers in mammals and fish. Chromium is one of the pollutants in urban sewage. It is used in tannery, paints, steel, textiles, printing, electroplating, rubber industries, pigments, plating, fungicides, corrosion inhibitors etc. L-Lysine amino acid is an essential amino acid and used as nutritional supplements. It is essential for growth and calcium absorption from intestine. Lysine also used to prevent osteoporosis, and it is also important for collagen synthesis, hormone and antibody production. To investigate the preventive role of L-lysine in chromium toxicity, the fish was exposed to 300 ppm chromic chloride (T2) for thirty days along with control (T1). during this period, the histopathology of stomach and intestine show atrophy of gastric epithelium, reduced mucosal folds and degeneration of gastric glands. The studies with Transmission Electron Microscopy of stomach of control (T1) and treated fish (T2 and T3) were conducted. TEM shows damaged E.R., reduced parietal cells along with reduction in the number of zymogen granules. In intestine, it shows atrophy of epithelium, reduced size and fusion of villi and necrosis also observed. In the combination dose experiment (T3), the fish was given an injection of L-Lysine amino acid @ 0.4 mg/100 gm body weight per day for thirty days. During this study, an improvement was observed after thirty days treatment, and it shows the nearly normal size of mucosal folds, epithelium of gastric mucosa regenerated as normal. In combination dose (T3), after thirty days of exposure, embedding of villi, villous atrophy and villous fusion is not seen. Intestinal glands as well as intestinal mucosa were observed nearly normal.

keywords: Lysine; Trivalent Chromium; Clarias; Atrophy; TEM; Villi

References

  1. Ahmad I., et al. “Oxidative stress and genotoxic effects in gill and kidney of Anguilla anguilla L. exposed to chromium with or without pre-exposure to ß-naphthoflavone”. Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 608 (2006): 16-28.
  2. Kumar P., et al. “Genotoxic and mutagenic assessment of hexavalent chromium in fish following in-vivo chronic exposure”. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal 18 (2012): 855-870.
  3. Garai P., et al. “Effect of heavy metals on fishes: Toxicity and Bioaccumulation”. Journal of Clinical Toxicology S18 (2021): 001.
  4. Mertz W and Schwarz K. “Relation of glucose tolerance factor to impaired glucose tolerance in rats on stock diets”. American Journal of Physiology 196 (1959): 614-618.
  5. Novakova S., et al. “Content of hexavalent chromium in water supplies and its effect on the development of experimental atherosclerosis in warm blooded animals”. Gigiena i sanitariia 5 (1974): 78-80.
  6. Abraham AS., et al. “The effect of chromium on established atherosclerotic plaques in rabbits”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 33 (1980): 2294-2298.
  7. Schroeder HA., et al. “Chromium, cadmium and lead in rats: effects on life span, tumors and tissue levels”. Journal of Nutrition 83 (1965): 239-250.
  8. Bakshi A and Panigrahi AK. “A comprehensive review on chromium induced alterations in fresh water fishes”. Toxicology Reports 5 (2018): 440-447.
  9. Yu Z., et al. “Toxic effects of hexavalent chromium on bioaccumulation, appoprosis, oxidative damage and inflammatory response in Channa asiatica”. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 87 (2021):103725.
  10. Visek WJ., et al. “Metabolism of chromium by animals as influenced by chemical state”. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 84 (1963): 610-613.
  11. Sterikhova NP., et al. “Gastric pathology in workers engaged in production of chromium salts”. Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevaniia 3 (1978): 19-23.
  12. Satoh K., et al. “Epidemiological study of workers engaged in the manufacture of chromium compounds”. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 23 (1981): 835-838.
  13. Panigrahi AK., et al. “A comprehensive review on the uptake by and accumulation of some heavy metals in freshwater fishes” 5 (2021): 440-447.
  14. Oken DE., et al. “Amino acid therapy in the treatment of acute renal failure in the rat”. Kidney International 17 (1980): 14.
  15. Mitch WE., et al. “The effect of a keto acid-amino acid supplementation to a restricted diet on the progression of chronic renal failure”. The New England Journal of Medicine 10 (1984): 623-629.
  16. Walser M., et al. “Progression of chronic renal failure in patient given keto acids following amino acids”. Kidney International 32 (1987): 123-128.
  17. Nasrallah SM and Galambos JT. “Amino acid therapy of alcoholic hepatitis”. The Lancet (1980): 1276-1277.
  18. Fischer JE. “Amino acids in hepatic comma”. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 27 (1982): 97-102.
  19. Herlong HF and Diehl AM. “Branched-chain amino acids in hepatic encephalopathy”. amino acids metabolism and medical applications (eds., George L. Blackburn; John, P.; Grant and Vernon R. Young). John Wright. PSG Inc, 542 Great Road, Littleton, Massachusetts 01460, USA (1983).
  20. Toback FG., et al. “Amino acid-mediated stimulation of renal phospholipid biosynthesis after acute tubular necrosis”. Kidney International 15 (1979): 542-547.
  21. Kopple JD., et al. “Nutritional status of patients with different levels of chronic renal insufficiency”. Kidney InternationalS27 (1989): S184-S194.
  22. Bali NP and Singh Balveer. “Protective role of L-lysine amino acid in toxicity of chromium in fish”. Biosphere1 (1994): 19-24.
  23. Singh Balveer. “Biopathology of a siluroid food fish exposed to stress due to chromium with special reference to the role of L-lysine amino acid”. Thesis submitted to Meerut University, Meerut, U.P., India (1995).
  24. NAS: Chromium committee on biological effects of atmospheric pollutants”. National Academy of Sciences, Washington D.C (1974).
  25. Gray SJ and Sterling K. “The tagging of red cells and plasma proteins with radioactive chromium”. Journal of Clinical Investigation 29 (1950): 1604-1613.
  26. Donaldson RM and Barreras RF. “Intestinal absorption of trace quantities of chromium”. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 68 (1966): 484-493.
  27. Domingo JL. “Cobalt in the environment and its toxicological implications”. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 108 (1989): 105-132.
  28. Ali Z., et al. “Toxicity and bioaccumulation of manganese and chromium in different organs of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fish”. Toxicology Reports 8 (2021): 343-348.
  29. Gehan BAY., et al. “Pratective role of Vitamin-C and Thyme extract (Thymus vulgaris) on chromium induced toxicity in catfish (Clarias gariepinus)”. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 1 (2021): 1-13.
  30. Strick JJTWA., et al. “Toxicity of chromium (VI) in fish, with special reference to organs or weight, liver and plasma enzyme activities, blood parameters and histological alterations. In: Koeman SH and Strick JJTWA. “Sublethal effects of toxic chemical on aquatic animals, Amesterdam, New York, Oxford, Elsevier Science Publishers (1975): 31-41.
  31. Masud T., et al. “Adaptive responses to very low diets: The first comparison of keto acids to essential amino acids”. Kidney International 45 (1994): 1182-1192.
  32. Singh Tejavath A., et al. “Impact of branched chain amino acid on muscle mass, muscle strength, physical performance, combined survival and maintenance of liver function changes in laboratory and prognostic markers on sarcopenic patients with liver cirrhosis (BCAAS study): A randomized clinical trial”. Frontiers in Nutrition 8 (2021): 715795.
  33. Doig GS., et al. “Intravenous amino acid therapy for kidney function in critically ill patients: A randomized controlled trial”. Intensive Care Medicine7 (2015): 1197-208.
  34. Zager RA., et al. “Acute amino acid nephrotoxicity”. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 101 (1983): 130-140.
  35. Recusen LC., et al. “Mechanism of lysine induced acute renal failure in rats”. Kidney International 27 (1985): 517-522.
  36. Dhami BS. “Acute high dose of L-lysine amino acid leads nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in freshwater fish Clarias batrachus”. Environment Conservation Journal3 (2020): 143-148.

Citation

Citation: Balveer Singh Dhami. “Regenerative Role of l-Lysine Amino Acid on Alimentary Canal of Fresh Water Food Fish Due to Chronic Chromium Toxicity- A Lab Study". Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 4.2 (2022): 75-80.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 Balveer Singh Dhami. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.008

Indexed In





News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is June 25, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US