Protective Effects of Hyssopus Officinalis and Medicago Sativa Extracts in Salmonella-Induced Colitis by Regulating Antioxidant and Inflammatory Mediators
Ehsan SoleimannejaBari1, Hadi Cheraghi2*, Parmida Choubsaz3, Negin Moezzi Nia4 and Mostafa Razmjoo2
1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey
2Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
3Department of Research and Development, Novin Navand Salamat Pishtaz Co., West Azerbaijan Science and Technology Park, Urmia, Iran
4Department of Biology, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Hadi Cheraghi, Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
December 27, 2021; Published: January 31, 2022
Background: Salmonella Typhimurium causes gastroenteritis which is characterized by diarrhea. Nowadays, instead of using antibacterial therapies to treat colitis, there is a growing interest in alternative natural products with antibacterial or anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Hyssopus officinalis (Hyssop) and Medicago sativa (Alfalfa), alone and in combination, on salmonella-induced colitis in mice.
Methods and results: Graded doses of 50% ethanolic extracts (25, 50, and 75 mg/kg) for 8 days, showed 50 mg/kg for Hyssop and 75 mg/kg for Alfalfa as an optimal effective dose against Salmonella induced colonic damage score which this dosage was further studies in salmonella-induced colitis for other parameters. Our data showed administration of extracts, not only reduced Lipid Peroxidation, myeloperoxidase activity, and nitric oxide levels but also inhibited decreasing of total antioxidant capacity in the colitis group. Also, following oral administration, the extracts had a significant reduction in pro-inflammatory mediators including interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, which had better results in the Mix group. Moreover, the Hyssop and Mix group decreased the histological score and Cox-2 mRNA expression, while Nrf-2 gene expression in the treatment groups did not show a significant change compared to the colitis group.
Conclusions: In conclusion, Oral Hyssop and Alfalfa extracts, alone and in combination, alleviate the symptoms, oxidative stress, and inflammation of salmonella-induced colitis, and combination therapy with Hyssopus officinalis and Medicago sativa may provide a promising dietary approach for the management of acute bacterial colitis.
Keywords: Hyssopus Officinalis; Medicago Sativa; Salmonella; Colitis; Inflammation; Antioxidant
- Wei Z., et al. “Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis infections in sporadic diarrhea in children: source tracing and resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and ciprofloxacin”. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease4 (2019): 244-255.
- Kaiser P and Hardt W-DJCoii. “Salmonella typhimurium diarrhea: switching the mucosal epithelium from homeostasis to defense”. Current Opinion in Immunology4 (2011): 456-463.
- Pirbalouti AG., et al. “Chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of essential oils from inflorescences of two landraces of hyssop [Hyssopus officinalis subsp. angustifolius (Bieb.)] cultivated in Southwestern, Iran”. Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants 22.4 (2019): 1074-1081.
- Hikal WM., et al. “Anti-leishmanial Activity of Hyssopus officinalis: a review”. International Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 3 (2017): 10-15.
- Džamić AM., et al. “Composition, antifungal and antioxidant properties of Hyssopus officinalis L. subsp. pilifer (Pant.) Murb. essential oil and deodorized extracts”. Industrial Crops and Products 51 (2013): 401-407.
- Chavan SS., et al. “Evaluation of antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of Medicago sativa leaves 3.5 (2015): 308-313.
- Wang SH., et al. “Copper‐induced oxidative stress and responses of the antioxidant system in roots of Medicago sativa”. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 6 (2011): 418-429.
- Seddighfar M., et al. “Analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of hydroalcoholic extracts of Malva sylvestris, Carum carvi or Medicago sativa, and their combination in a rat model”. Journal of Integrative Medicine2 (2020): 181-188.
- Gatouillat G., et al. “Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) leaf extracts in sensitive and multidrug-resistant tumor cells”. Nutrition and Cancer3 (2014): 483-491.
- Anwaar A., et al. “Antifungal efficacy of phytoconstituents of Medicago sativa against Rhizoctonia solani 101.1 (2021): 1-5.
- Taylor R., et al. “Screening of selected medicinal plants of Nepal for antimicrobial activities”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology3 (1995): 153-159.
- Grassl GA and Finlay BBJCoig. “Pathogenesis of enteric Salmonella infections”. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology1 (2008): 22-26.
- Cooper HS., et al. “Clinicopathologic study of dextran sulfate sodium experimental murine colitis”. Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology2 (1993): 238-249.
- Santucci L., et al. “Galectin-1 suppresses experimental colitis in mice”. Gastroenterology 5 (2003): 1381-1394.
- Giannella RAJI. “Immunity. Importance of the intestinal inflammatory reaction in Salmonella-mediated intestinal secretion”. Infection and Immunity1 (1979): 140-145.
- Zhong G., et al. “IF1 inactivation attenuates experimental colitis through downregulation of neutrophil infiltration in colon mucosa”. International Immunopharmacology 99 (2021): 107980.
- Chung H-L., et al. “Effect of Scutellariae Radix extract on experimental dextran-sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats”. World Journal of Gastroenterology42 (2007): 5605.
- Veenstra JP., et al. “Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Carnosic Acid and Carnosol in Standardized Rosemary Extract and the Effect on the Disease Activity Index of DSS-Induced Colitis”. Nutrients3 (2021): 773.
- Chassaing B., et al. “Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)‐induced colitis in mice”. Current Protocols in Immunology1 (2014): 15-25.
- Mićović T., et al. “Antioxidant, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic activity of essential oils and methanol extracts of hyssopus officinalis Subsp. aristatus (godr.) nyman (lamiaceae)”. Plants 10.4 (2021): 711.
- Kamalian A., et al. “Interventions of natural and synthetic agents in inflammatory bowel disease, modulation of nitric oxide pathways”. World Journal of Gastroenterology 24 (2020): 3365.
- Vlase L., et al. “Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and phenolic profile for Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys”. Molecules 5 (2014): 5490-5507.
- Raeeszadeh M., et al. “The Antioxidant Effect of Medicago sativa (Alfalfa) Ethanolic Extract against Mercury Chloride (HgCl2) Toxicity in Rat Liver and Kidney: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study”. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics (2021): 2021.
- Jackson LN., et al. “Alternative medicine products as a novel treatment strategy for inflammatory bowel disease”. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine05 (2008): 953-965.
- Mehta A., et al. “Effect of Salmonella typhimurium enterotoxin (S-LT) on lipid peroxidation and cell viability levels of isolated rat enterocytes”. Stress Adaptation, Prophylaxis and Treatment: Springer (1999): 175-181.
- Stettner N., et al. “Induction of nitric-oxide metabolism in enterocytes alleviates colitis and inflammation-associated colon cancer”. Cell Reports7 (2018): 1962-1976.
- Olaisen M., et al. “Mucosal 5‐aminosalicylic acid concentration, drug formulation and mucosal microbiome in patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis”. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics10 (2019): 1301-1313.
- Joy GSJGS., et al. “Antimicrobial screening of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in various bacterial strains”. International Journal of Pharmaceutics and Drug Analysis (2014): 65-69.
- LaRock DL., et al. “Salmonellae interactions with host processes”. Nature Reviews Microbiology4 (2015): 191-205.
- Majumdar S., et al. “Absence of receptor guanylyl cyclase C enhances ileal damage and reduces cytokine and antimicrobial peptide production during oral Salmonella enterica Serovar typhimurium infection”. Infection and Immunity5 (2018): e00799-00717.
- Ruder B., et al. “Tumour necrosis factor alpha in intestinal homeostasis and gut related diseases”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences8 (2019): 1887.
- Shouval DS., et al. “Interleukin 1β mediates intestinal inflammation in mice and patients with interleukin 10 receptor deficiency”. Gastroenterology6 (2016): 1100-1104.
- De Andrade SF., et al. “Herbal Medicines Useful to Treat Inflammatory and Ulcerative Gastrointestinal Disorders: Preclinical and Clinical Studies”. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: eCAM: Hindawi (2018).
- Sabzevary-Ghahfarokhi M., et al. “The regulatory role of Nrf2 in antioxidants phase2 enzymes and IL-17A expression in patients with ulcerative colitis”. Pathology-Research and Practice 8 (2018): 1149-1155.
- Bai X., et al. “Sesamin enhances Nrf2-mediated protective defense against oxidative stress and inflammation in colitis via AKT and ERK activation”. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity (2019).
- Cho W-S and Chae CJVP. “Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and nitric oxide synthase 2 in swine ulcerative colitis caused by Salmonella typhimurium”. Veterinary Pathology4 (2004): 419-423.
- Bernal-Bayard J and Ramos-Morales FJCiimb. “Molecular mechanisms used by Salmonella to evade the immune system”. Current Issues in Molecular Biology1 (2018): 133-168.