Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences (ISSN: 2582-3183)

Mini Review Volume 4 Issue 2

Case of Cystic Graffian Follicles in Cattle

Shambhavi*, Harshit Saroha, Aditya Kumar and Shubham Kumar

Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics, University/Organization, India

*Corresponding Author: Shambhavi, Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics, University/Organization, India.

Received: December 13, 2021; Published: January 31, 2022


  Follicular cyst is an ovarian dysfunction resulting in reproductive failure in dairy cattle. It is recognized as enlarged anovulatory follicle like structures (< 2.5 cm) and persisting for 10 or more days in dairy cows. Accurate diagnosis of follicular cyst currently employs a combination of transrectal palpation, transrectal ultrasonography and plasma progesterone assay. In field conditions the manual rupture of follicle was generally advocated, yet during the past several years single or combined use of GnRH, progesterone and prostaglandins have been in clinical practice. Other therapies include estrogen receptor blocker clomiphene citrate and trans-vaginal ultrasound guided cystic follicle aspiration. Homeopathic medications for the follicular cyst have also come in trend but success of therapy is governed by many confounding variables such as persistence of the follicles and duration of the pathological condition. The correct choice of treatment and implementation of the preventive measures can help in reducing economic loss caused by the disease to the dairy industries.

Keywords: Cystic Ovarian Degeneration; Follicular Cyst; Hormonal Assay; Progesterone Implants Homeopathic Medication; GnRH


  1. Al-Dahash SY and David JS. “Histological examination of ovaries and uteri from cows with cystic ovaries”. Veterinary Record 17 (1977): 342-347.
  2. Anderson LH and Day ML. “1994 Acute progesterone administration regresses persistent dominant follicles and improves fertility of cattle in which estrus was synchronized with melengestrol acetate”. Journal of Animal Science 11 (1994): 2955-2961.
  3. Annalisa R., et al. “Epidural vs intramuscular administration of lecirelin, a GnRH analogue, for the resolution of follicular cysts in dairy cows”. Animal Reproduction Science 126 (2011): 19-22.
  4. Bartolome JA., et al. “Strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cysts in dairy cattle Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 227 (2005): 1409–1414.
  5. Bugalia NS and Kohli IS. “Comparative efficacy of proluton depot, gonadotropin-LH and potassium iodide in nymphomaniac Rathi cows”. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research 11 (1981): 575-577.
  6. Calder MD., et al. “Administration of progesterone to cows with ovarian follicular cysts results in a reduction in mean LH and LH pulse frequency and initiates ovulatory follicullar growth”. Journal of Animal Science 77 (1999): 3037-3042.
  7. Dawson FLM. “Bovine Cystic Ovarian Disease-A review of recent Progress”. British Veterinary Journal 113 (1957): 112-133.
  8. Dawson FLM. “Bovine Cystic Ovarian Disease: An Analysis of 48 Cases Article 2”. British Veterinary Journal 114 (1958): 96-105.
  9. Dobson H., et al. “Bovine cystic ovarian disease: plasma hormone concentrations and treatment”. Veterinary Record 101 (1977): 459-461.
  10. Douthwaite R and Dobson H. “Comparison of different methods of diagnosis of cystic ovarian disease in cattle and an assessment of its treatment with a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device”. Veterinary Record 147 (2000): 355-359.
  11. Eyestone WH and RL AX. “A Review of Ovarian Follicular Cysts in Cows, With Comparisons to the Condition in Women, Rats and Rabbits”. Theriogenology 22 (1984): 109-125.
  12. Farin PW., et al. “Diagnosis of luteal and follicular ovarian cysts in dairy cows by sector scan ultrasonography”. Theriogenology 34 (1990): 633-642.
  13. Garverick HA. “Ovarian follicular cysts in dairy cows”. Journal of Dairy Science 80 (1997): 995-1004.
  14. Garverick HA. “Ovarian Follicular Dynamics and Endocrine Profiles in Cows with Ovarian Follicular Cysts”. In: J. L. Howard and R. A. Smith (Eds.) Current Veterinary Therapy 4: Food Animal Practice W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia (1999) 577-580.
  15. Hamilton SA., et al. “Characterization of ovarian follicular cysts and associated endocrine profiles in dairy cows”. Biology Reproduction 53 (1995): 890-898.
  16. Jeengar K., et al. “Ovarian cysts in dairy cows: old and new concepts for definition, diagnosis and therapy”. Animal Reproduction (AR)11.2 (2018): 63-73.
  17. Johnson A and Ulberg L. “Influence of exogenous progesterone on follicular cysts in dairy cattle”. Journal of Dairy Science 50 (1967): 758-761.
  18. Karreman HJ. “Ovarian cysts. In: Karreman HJ”. Treating Dairy Cows Naturally: Thoughts and Strategies. Austin, TX: Paradise Publications (2007): 291-292.
  19. Kasari R., et al. “Bovine COD and the role norgestomet can play in its treatment”. Veterinary medicine 91 (1996): 156-162.
  20. Kesler DJ and Garverick HA. “Ovarian cysts in dairy cattle: a review”. Journal of Animal Science 55 (1982): 1147-1159.
  21. Kinder J., et al. “Progestin and estrogen regulation of pulsatile LH release and development of persistent ovarian follicles in cattle”. Journal of Animal Science 74 (1996): 1424-1440.
  22. Lievaart JJ., et al. “Transvaginal aspiration as first treatment of ovarian follicular cysts in dairy cattle under field circumstances”. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 131 (2006): 438-442.
  23. Lopez-Gatius F., et al. “Risk factors for postpartum ovarian cysts and their spontaneous recovery or persistence in lactating dairy cows”. Theriogenology58 (2002): 1623–1632.
  24. Lopez-Gatius F and Lopez-Bejar M. “Reproductive performance of dairy cows with ovarian cysts after different GnRH and cloprostenol treatments”. Theriogenology 58 (2002): 1337-1348.
  25. Majeed AF and Ali JB. “Treatment of follicular cystic ovaries in dairy cattle”. Indian Veterinary Journal 64 (1987): 340-342.
  26. McDonald RJ., et al. “The use of organic iodine in the treatment of repeat breeder cows”. In: Proceedings of the IV International Congress on Animal Reproduction, The Hague, 1961. The Hague: ICAR (1961): 679-681.
  27. McDowell C., et al. “Duration of treatment with progesterone and regression of persistent ovarian follicles in cattle”. Journal of Animal Science 76 (1998): 850-855.
  28. Nelson ST., et al. “Risk factors associated with cystic ovarian disease in Norwegian dairy cattle”. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 52 (2010):
  29. Ortega HH., et al. “Molecular aspects of bovine cystic ovarian disease pathogenesis”. Reproduction 6 (2015).
  30. Peter AT. “Infertility due to abnormalities of the ovaries”. In: Youngquist, RS (ed.), Current Therapy in Large Animal Theriogenology. WB Saunders, Philadelphia (1997)349–354.
  31. Prasithiphol S., et al. “Uterine flushing in repeat breeding dairy cows using normal saline and antibiotic solution”. Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine 29 (1999): 33-43.
  32. Purohit GN., et al. “Cystic ovarian disease in Rathi Cattle”. Annals of Arid Zone 40 (2001): 199-202.
  33. Purohit GN. “Recent developments in the diagnosis and therapy of repeat breeding cows and buffaloes”. CAB Reviews Perspectives in Agriculture Veterinary Science Nutrition and Natural Resources 62 (2008): 1-34.
  34. Rajan A., et al. “Efficacy of iodine supplementation in cows with anoestrum and repeat breeding”. Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 22 (1991): 119-121.
  35. Roberts SJ. “Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases (Theriogenology). 2nd ed. Ann Arbor, MI: Edward Brothers (1971): 421-435.
  36. Roberts SJ. “Hormonal Disturbances resulting in Infertility”. In: S. J. Roberts (Ed.) Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases (Theriogenology) (1986): 478-494.
  37. Silva AM., et al. “Treatment of ovarian cysts in cattle with lecirelin acetate”. Animal Reproduction 9 (2012): 591.
  38. Terakawa N., et al. “A possible role of clomiphene citrate in the control of preovulatory LH surge during induction of ovulation”. Acta Endocrinology (Copenhagen) 109 (1985): 58-63.
  39. Thakur MS., et al. “Efficacy of fertivet (clomiphene) on cystic ovaries in crossbred Holstein Friesian and Haryana cows”. Cheiron 12 (1983): 263-264.
  40. Vanholder T., et al. “Aetiology and pathogenesis of cystic ovarian follicles in dairy cattle: a review”. Reproduction Nutrition Development 46 (2006): 105–119.
  41. Williams WL and WW Williams. “Nymphomania of the Cow-Case Reports”. The North American Veterinarian 4 (1923): 305-315.
  42. Youngquist RS. “Cystic follicular degeneration in the cow”. In: Morrow DA (Ed.). Current Therapy in Theriogenology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders (1986): 243-246.


Citation: Shambhavi., et al. “Case of Cystic Graffian Follicles in Cattle". Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 4.2 (2022): 46-50.


Copyright: © 2022 Shambhavi., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.008

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US