Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences (ISSN: 2582-3183)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 2

Gill and Liver Histology of Clarias gariepinus Exposed to Acute Treatments of Parkia biglobosa Husk Extract

Aladi Lucky Shaibu1*, Samuel Ijabo Ogah2, Isiyaku Muhammed Sani3, David Hannah Ojone1 and Haruna Patricia Ojoagefu1

1Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Kogi State University Anyigba, Nigeria
2Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Federal University Gashua, Nigeria
3Bayero University Kano, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: Aladi Lucky Shaibu, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Kogi State University Anyigba, Nigeria.

Received: December 06, 2021; Published: January 13, 2022

Abstract

Certain plants contain chemicals and have been used traditionally to harvest fish in many parts of the world. There is high tendency to abuse such plants for quick kills. A notable example of such plant piscicide is Parkia biglobosa. This research was carried out to investigate the toxic effects of Parkia. Biglobosa husk extract on Clarias gariepinus juveniles. These effects were measured in terms of acute toxicity (LC50) and the pathological alterations to the liver and gills of C. gariepinus juveniles. When the extract was applied in a bioassay test the fish exhibited erratic swimming movements, rapid opercula movement, air surfacing and loss of reflex, especially at the higher concentrations and consequently mortality. The mortality was in direct proportion to the level of the effluent. LC50 values obtained from the fish exposed to P. biglobosa husk effluent within 96h was found to be 90.02 mg/l. The impact of the P. biglobosa extract on the liver and gills of the fish showed pathological alterations when compared to the control. Gills of C. gariepinus exposed to different levels of effluent showed various degrees of damage. All fish exposed to the effluent showed separation of respiratory epithelium from underlying supportive tissue. The toxicity of P. biglobosa husk extract to C. gariepinus was established.

Keywords: Organic Toxicant; Gill; Liver; Histology; Parkia biglobosa; Husk Extract

References

  1. Fafioye OO. “Acute and sub-acute toxicities of five plant extracts on white tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Trewavas)”. International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Science13 (2012): 525-530.
  2. Sanon S., et al. “In vitro antiplasmodial and cytotoxic properties of some medicinal plants from western Burkina Faso”. African Journal of Laboratory Medicine1 (2013): 81.
  3. Traoré M., et al. “The malaria co-infection challenge: an investigation into the antimicrobial activity of selected Guinean medicinal plants”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 174 (2015): 576-581.
  4. Kpodar M S., et al. “An ethnobotanical study of plants used to treat liver diseases in the Maritime region of Togo”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 181 (2015): 263-273.
  5. Baldé M A., et al. “Antimicrobial investigation of ethnobotanically selected guinean plant species”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 263 (2020): 113-232.
  6. Aderounmu AF., et al. “Socio Economic Importance and Ethnobotanical Potentials of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R. Br. ex G. Don”. KIU Journal of Humanities2 (2020): 417-421.
  7. Oyeyemi IT., et al. “Ethnobotanical survey of the plants used for the management of malaria in Ondo State, Nigeria”. South African Journal of Botany 124 (2019): 391-401.
  8. Rashed K., et al. “Evaluation of antioxidant, antimicrobial activities and phytochemical content of some Egyptian plants”. International Food Research Journal6 (2018): 2292-2300.
  9. Official Methods of Analysis (17th Ed.) Washington DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2000).
  10. Conducting Acute Toxicity tests with fishes, macroinvertebrates and amphibians. Standard E729-96. Am. Soc. Test. Mat., 100 Barr Harbour Drive, West Conshohoken, Pennsylvania 19428 (2002).
  11. Official Methods of Analysis (17th Ed.) Washington DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Arlington VA 222.187-188. INC 1111 (2000).
  12. Ayuba VO., et al. “Acute Toxicity of NPK 20:10:10 to Fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus”. Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies (2014).
  13. Nwanna LC., et al. “Toxicity of gramozone and detergent to Nile Tilapia ( niloticus) fingerlings and aquatic environment”. In 11th Annual conference of Environment and Behaviour (2003): 26-27.
  14. Ogah IS., et al. “Intestine Histology of Juvenile Clarias gariepinus Acutely Exposed to Parkia biglobosa Husk Extract”. African Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Development 3 (2021): 29-43.
  15. Usang E E and Ikpeme N J. “The Niger delta oil rich region: The paradox of fascination and horror”. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies1 (2015): 117.
  16. Tayyabah S., et al. “Acute toxicity studies of hexavalent Cr in the common Carp, Cyprinus carpio”. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 20 (2005): 209-214.
  17. Metelev VV., et al. “Water toxicology”. Amrind Publishing Co Pvt Ltd New Delhi (1983): 120-125.
  18. Rauf A., et al. “Assessment of heavy metals in sediments of river Ravi, Pakistan”. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 11 (2009): 197-200.
  19. Patel JM and Bahadur A. “Histopathological alterations in Catla catla induced by chronic exposure of copper ions”. Cell and Tissue Research 3 (2010): 2365-2370.
  20. Farombi EO., et al. “Biomarkers of oxidative stress and heavy metal levels as indicators of environmental pollution in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from Nigeria Ogun river”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 4 (2007): 158-165.
  21. Bols NC., et al. “Ecotoxicology and innate immunity in fish”. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 25 (2001): 853-873.
  22. Abdullah S. “Studies on acute toxicity of metals to the fish viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala”. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Zoology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan (2007): 1-191.
  23. Olaifa FE., et al. “Heavy metal contamination of Clarias gariepinus from a lake and fish farm in Ibadan Nigeria”. African Journal of Biomedical Research 7 (2004): 145-148.
  24. Rana K S., et al. “Histopathological alterations induced by tannery and textile dyeing effluents in the kidney of Labeo rohita (HAM.)”. Journal of Environmental Biology4 (2000): 301-304.

Citation

Citation: Aladi Lucky Shaibu., et al. “Gill and Liver Histology of Clarias gariepinus Exposed to Acute Treatments of Parkia biglobosa Husk Extract ". Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 4.2 (2022): 02-09.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 Aladi Lucky Shaibu., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.008

Indexed In





News and Events


Contact US