Effect of Sumac and Thyme Extracts on Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus cereus in Chicken Fillet
Abd El-Malek AM1* and Essa HH2
1Department of Food Hygiene (Meat Hygiene), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt
2Animal Health Research Institute, Assiut Regional Lab, Egypt
*Corresponding Author: Abd El-Malek AM, Department of Food Hygiene (Meat Hygiene), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt.
September 06, 2021 Published: December 16, 2021
This research was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of some spice extracts such as sumac and thyme for the control of the growth and survival of two pathogenic microorganisms of significant importance in food hygiene namely, Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus cereus. Two different methods were conducted to examine the inhibitory effect of these spice extracts, agar cup method and in food model system (deboned poultry meat). Regarding agar cup method, by using two different concentrations of each spice extract (1.5 and 3%), the obtained results showed that S. typhimurium was more sensitive than B. cereus to the action of added spices and 1.5 and 3% sumac extracts demonstrating better activity against S. typhimuriumwith an inhibition zones of 20.1 and 32 mm, respectively, meanwhile, 1.5 and 3% of thyme extracts giving more inhibitory effect on B. cereus with an inhibition zones of 14 and 23.6 mm, respectively. The other method was performed on chicken fillet stored at 5 ºC for 7 days, the results showed that sumac extracts had the greatest rate of reduction of ,S. typhimurium populations after 7 days of storage, while the more inhibitory effect of B. cereus counts was by adding thyme extracts.
Keywords: Sumac; Thyme; Antimicrobial Activity; S. typhimurium; B. cereus
- Beuchat LR and Golden DA. “Antimicrobials occurring naturally in foods”. Food Technology 43 (1989): 134-142.
- Gold SG and Moellering RC. “Antimicrobial drug resistance”. New England Journal of Medicine 335 (1996): 1445-1453.
- Lanciotti R., et al. “Use of natural aroma compounds to improve shelf-life of minimally processed fruits”. Trends in Food Science and Technology 15 (2004): 201-208.
- Indu MN., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of some of the south-Indian spices against serotypes of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila”. Brazilian Journal Microbiology2 (2006).
- Nasar-Abbas SM and halkman AK. “Inhibition of some food-borne bacteria by alcohol extract of Sumac (Rhus coriaria L)”. Journal of Food Safety 24 (2004): 257-267.
- Wetherilt H and Pala M. “Herbs and spices indigenous to Turkey”. In Spices, Herbs and Edible Fungi: Developments in Food Science 34 (1994): 285-307, Elsevier Science B. V., Amsterdam.
- Abu-Shnab., et al. “Antibacterial activity of Rhus coriaria L. extracts growing in Palastine”. Journal of The Islamic University of Gaza, (Natural Sciences Series)2 (2005): 147-153.
- Van Den Brooke CO and Lemli JA. “Pharmacological and chemical investigation of thyme liquid extracts”. Planta Medica 41 (1981): 129-135.
- Panizz, L., et al. “Composition and antimicrobial properties of essential oils of four Mediterranean Lamiaceae”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 3 (1993): 167-170.
- Kotiranta A., et al. “Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Bacillus cereus infections”. Microbes and Infection 2 (2000): 189-198.
- McKillip JL. “Prevalence and expression of enterotoxins in Bacillus cereus and other Bacillus spp., a literature review”. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek4 (2004): 393-399.
- Ehling-Schulz M., et al. “Bacillus cereus, the causative agent of an emetic type of food-borne illness”. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research 7 (2014): 479-487.
- Varnam AH and Evans MG. “Salmonella. In: Food-borne Pathogens”. Wolf Publishing Ltd., London, England (1991): 51-85.
- Abd El-Mawla AMA. “A pharmacognostical study of Astragalus sieberi DC”. Family Leguminosae growing in Egypt. M.Sc. D. Thesis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University (1996).
- Zaika LL. “Spices and Herbs: their antimicrobial activity and its determination”. Journal of Food Safety 9 (1988): 97-118.
- “International Commission on Microbiological Specification for Foods (1978): Microorganisms in Foods”. 1- Their significance and methods of enumeration. 2nd Edition. University. of Toronto Press, Toronto and Buffalo, Canada.
- Kim HU and Goepfert JM. “Enumeration and identification of B. cereus in foods.1. 24h presumptive test medium”. Applied Microbiology 22 (1971): 581-587.
- Thongson C., et al. “Antimicrobial effect of Thai spices against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium DT104”. Journal of Food Protection 10 (2005): 2054-2058.
- Abd El-Malek AM., et al. “Inhibitory effect of some spice extracts on listeria monocytogenes in minced meat”. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal 110 (2006): 65-74.
- Saxena G., et al. “Antimicrobial constituents of Rhus glabra”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 42 (1994): 95-99.
- Ahmed Azza H., et al. “Microbial inhibitory effect of some spice extracts on deboned poultry meat”. Beni-Suef Veterinary Medical Journal 1 (1999): 133-143.
- Sakhr K and El Khatib S. “Physiochemical properties and medicinal, nutritional and industrial applications of Lebanese Sumac (Syrian Sumac - Rhus coriaria): A review”. Heliyon 6 (2020)” e03207.
- Aktug SE and Karapinar M. “Sensitivity of some common food-poisoning bacteria to thyme, mint and bay leaves”. International Journal of Food Microbiology 3 (1986): 349-354.
- Cosentino S., et al. “In-vitro antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Sardinian Thymus essential oils”. Letters in Applied Microbiology 29 (1999): 130-135.
- , et al. “Preservation of Chicken Breast Meat Treated with Thyme and Balm Essential Oils”. Journal of food science 75 (2010): M528-535.
- Samuel-Kiprotich., et al. “Thyme Oil Enhances the Inactivation of Salmonella enterica on Raw Chicken Breast Meat During Marination in Lemon Juice with Added Yucca schidigera Extract”. Frontiers in Nutrition (2021).
- Janssen AM., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of essential oils: a 1976-1986 literature review. Aspects of test methods”. Planta Medica 53 (1987): 395-398.
- Nieto G. “A Review on Applications and Uses of Thymus in the Food Industry”. Plants (Basel, Switzerland)8 (2020): 961.