Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences (ISSN: 2582-3183)

Editorial Volume 3 Issue 11

Foot and Mouth Disease: Carrier Status

Rajeev Ranjan* and Jitendra Kumar Biswal

ICAR-International Centre for Foot and Mouth Disease, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

*Corresponding Author: Rajeev Ranjan, Scientist, ICAR-International Centre for Foot and Mouth Disease, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

Received: June 21, 2021; Published: October 01, 2021


  Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hooved domestic animals as well as over 70 wild life species such as elephants, deer etc. Symptoms of the disease include pyrexia, lameness, and vesicular lesions of the tongue, feet, muzzle, and teats [9]. Following a subset of the acute phase of infection, 50- 60% of the bovine population becomes a carrier or is persistently infected with FMD virus (FMDV). A carrier animal is one from which infectious FMDV virus [10] or genome detection [6] can be recovered 28 days after FMDV infection in the oropharyngeal fluid (OPF). FMDV persistence varies by species [2] and can occur in both vaccinated and unvaccinated animals [1]. Few researchers have previously reported that FMDV can be transmitted from carrier animals to susceptible naive populations under field conditions [8] or experimental conditions [5] and this could be due to the presence of infectious FMDV in oropharyngeal fluid of seemingly healthy animals [4,7].


  1. Alexandersen S., et al. “Aspects of the persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in animals-the carrier problem”. Microbes and Infection10 (2002): 1099-110.
  2. Alexandersen S., et al. “The pathogenesis and diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease”. Journal of Comparative Pathololgy 129 (2003): 1-36.
  3. Arzt J., et al. “The pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease II: viral pathways in swine, small ruminants, and wildlife, myotropism, chronic syndromes, and molecular virus-host interactions”. Transboundary and Emerging Disease 58 (2011): 305-326.
  4. Arzt J., et al. “Transmission of foot-and mouth disease from persistently infected carrier cattle to naive cattle via transfer of oropharyngeal fluid”. mSphere 3 (2018): e00365-318.
  5. Bao HF., et al. “The infectivity and pathogenicity of a foot-and-mouth disease virus persistent infection strain from oesophageal–pharyngeal fluid of a Chinese cattle in 2010”. Journal of Virology 8 (2011): 536.
  6. Donn A., et al. “Improved detection of persistent foot-and-mouth disease infection in cattle by the polymerase chain reaction”. Journal of Virological Methods 49 (1994): 179-186.
  7. Hayer SS., et al. “Quantitative characteristics of the foot-and-mouth disease carrier state under natural conditions in India”. Transboundary and Emerging Disease1 (2018): 253-260.
  8. Klein J. “Understanding the molecular epidemiology of foot-and mouth- disease virus”. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 2 (2009): 153-161.
  9. Ranjan R., et al. “Managements of Foot and Mouth Disease in a dairy farm: By Ethnoveterinary practice”. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences3 (2016): 256-259.
  10. Sutmoller P and Gaggero A. “Foot-and-mouth diseases carriers”. Veterinary Record33 (1965): 968-969.
  11. World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Terrestrial Animal Health Code, Chapter 8.8. “Infection with foot and mouth disease virus”. World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), Paris, France.


Citation: Rajeev Ranjan and Jitendra Kumar Biswal. “Foot and Mouth Disease: Carrier Status". Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 3.11 (2021): 01-02.


Copyright: © 2021 Rajeev Ranjan and Jitendra Kumar Biswal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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