Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences (ISSN: 2582-3183)

Review Article Volume 3 Issue 10

Bone Mineral Density and Weaning Weight of Piglets from First-Parity Sows Fed Zinc during Gestation and Lactation

Claudia Cassimira Silva1, Natalia Barros Petroli Utimi1, Larissa José Parazzi2, Cristiane Soares da Silva Araújo2, Brunna Garcia de Souza Leite1, Maitê Vital Mendonça2, Yasmin Gonçalves de Almeida Sartore2, Vera Letticie de Azevedo Ruiz2, Simone Maria Massami Kitamura Martins1, Carlos Alexandre Granghelli1 and Lúcio Francelino Araújo1*

1Department of Animal Science, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
2Department of Animal Nutrition and Production, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
3Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

*Corresponding Author: Lúcio Francelino Araujo, Department of Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Brazil.

Received: July 21, 2021; Published: August 23, 2021

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of zinc provided to sows and their progeny on reproductive parameters, litter and nursery piglet’s performance, zinc (Zn) concentration in plasma, colostrum and milk, bone densitometry, fecal score and intestinal morphometry in piglets. A total of 18 first-parity sows and their hundred and eighty weaned piglets at 21-d-old, were distributed according to a randomized block experimental design in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement into nine treatments, consisting of the supplementation of 100 mg Zn/kg of three different sources (zinc-glycine (ZnGly), zinc amino acid complex (ZnAA) or zinc oxide (ZnO) in the maternal (gestation and lactation) and in the nursery diets. Data were analyzed by MIXED procedures of SAS, and means were compared by the test of Tukey-Kramer. Significance was assessed at P ≤ 0.05 and trends were discussed at P > 0.05 ≤ 0.1. Pregnant sows fed ZnO had greater total feed intake than those fed organic Zn, and lower body weight loss (P < 0.05). Also, piglets from sows fed ZnO had greater ADG (P = 0.05) compared with other treatments. Colostrum and milk Zn concentration were not affected by diet (P > 0.05). Plasma Zn concentration at 21d of lactation in the ZnAA sows were higher than those fed with ZnGly, but it was similar to ZnO (P < 0.05). At 21-d-old, ZnO sows had heavier piglets (P < 0.05) compared to ZnGly sows, but were similar to ZnAA sows. Also, the piglets from sows fed ZnAA had higher (P < 0.05) BMD than those from ZnO sows, but it was similar to sows fed ZnGly the ZnO + ZnGly piglets weaned showed 28.2% of incidence of pasty feces than those in the ZnGly + ZnAA (18.2%) and ZnGly + ZnGly (16.4%) groups, but it similar to the other groups. At 70-d-old, the lowest villus height (P < 0.05) was measured in the duodenum of ZnAA + ZnGly piglets compared to other treatments. The larger CD was observed when the piglets received ZnO and ZnGly (P < 0.05), regardless Zn source from sow. These data suggest that sows fed diets supplemented with ZnO during gestation may be able to increase total feed intake of sow and piglets weaning weight and reduce body weight loss sow. However, in the nursery pig there seems to be very little difference among zinc source on intestinal morphometry, performance and zinc plasma concentration.

Keywords: Colostrum; Diarrhea; Immunity; Nursery; Organic Trace Minerals

References

  1. Yagüe A P. “Normatização do uso de minerais na alimentação suína”. Suínos and Cia 32 (20090:11-18.
  2. Pinheiro SRF. “Uso de zinco na alimentação de leitões”. Revista Eletrônica Nutritime 1 (2004): 157-163.
  3. Shankar AH and Prasad AS. “Zinc and immune function: the biological basis of altered resistance to infection”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68 (1998): 447S-463S.
  4. Caine, et al. “Supplementation of diets for gestating sows with zinc amino acid complex and gastric intubation of suckling pigs with zinc-methionine on mineral status, intestinal morphology and bacterial translocation in lipopolysaccharide-challenged early-weaned pigs”. Research in Veterinary Science 86 (2009): 453-462.
  5. Mahan DC., et al. “Macro and mineral composition of fetal pigs and their accretion rates during fetal development”. Journal Animal Science 87 (2009); 2823-2832.
  6. Li C., et al. “Minerals and trace elements in human breast milk are associated with Guatemalan infant anthropometric outcomes within the first 6 months”. The Journal of Nutrition 146 (2016): 2067-2074.
  7. Richards MP. “Zinc, Copper and iron metabolism during porcine fetal development”. Biological Trace Element Research 69 (1999): 27-44.
  8. Rostagno HS., et al. “Tabelas brasileiras para aves e suínos: composição de alimentos e exigências nutricionais”. Viçosa: Universidade Federal de Viçosa (2017): 488.
  9. Schlegel P., et al. “Bioavailability of zinc sources and their interaction with phytates in broilers and piglets”. Animal 7 (2013): 47-59.
  10. NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL. “Nutrient requirements of swine”. 10th rev. ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press (1998).
  11. NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL. “Nutrient requirements of swine”. 11. ed. Washington, DC: National Academy (2012): 400.
  12. Brugger D., et al. “Development of an experimental model to assess the bioavailability of zinc in practical piglet diets”. Archives of Animal Nutrition 68: (2014) 73-92.
  13. Hill GM., et al. “Comparison of organic and inorganic zinc sources to maximize growth and meet the zinc needs of the nursery pig”. Journal of Animal Science 92 (2014): 1582-1594.
  14. Condé MS., et al. “Minerais quelatados na nutrição de suínos”. Revista Eletrônica Nutritime 11 (2014): 3547-3565.
  15. Nitrayova, S. et al. “Bioavailability of zinc from different sources in pigs”. Journal of Animal Science 90 (2012): 185-187.
  16. Ma L., et al. “Effects of low-dose organic trace minerals on performance, mineral status, and fecal mineral excretion of sows”. Asian-Autraliasian Journal of Animal Science 33 (2020): 132-138.
  17. “Official Method of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists”. AOAC International, Arlington (1996).
  18. Louzada MJQ., et al. “Densidade de peças ósseas de frangos. Estudo pela densitometria óptica radiográfica”. Veterinária e Zootecnia 9 (1997): 95-109.
  19. Pekas JC. “Morphometry of the intestine of the pig. I. A method for complete circumsection analysis”. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 31 (1986): 79-89.
  20. STATISTICAL ANALISYS SYSTEM. SAS: software. v. 9.3. Cary: SAS Institute (2010).
  21. Yin J., et al. “Dietary supplementation with zinc oxide stimulates ghrelin secretion from the stomach of young pig”. The Journal of Nutrition Biochesmistry 20 (2009): 783-790.
  22. Wang M., et al. “Zinc in wheat grain, processing, and food”. Frontiers in Nutrition (2020).
  23. Payne RL., et al. Growth and intestinal morphology of pigs from sows fed two zinc sources during gestation and lactation”. Journal Animal Science 84 (2006): 2141-2149.
  24. Zetzsche A., et al. “Influence of formula versus sow milk feeding on trace element status and expression of zinc-related genes in the jejunum, liver and pancreas of neonatal piglets”. Archives of Animal Nutrition 69 (2015): 366-377.
  25. Davin R., et al. “Zn status of sows and piglets as affected by diet and sow parity”. Livestock Science 178 (2015): 337-344.
  26. Grela ER., et al. “The influence of microbial phytase supplementation to diets with high or low native phytase activity on sow reproductive traits and composition of colostrum and milk”. Journal of Animal Feed Science 19 (2010): 418-429.
  27. Csapó J., et al. “Protein, fats, vitamin and mineral concentrations in porcine colostrum and milk from parturition to 60 days”. International Dairy Journal 6 (1996): 881-902.
  28. Hu P., et al. “Dynamic changes of fatty acids and minerals in sow milk during lactation”. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 103 (2018): 1-9.
  29. Matte JJ., et al. “Maternal perinatal transfer of vitamins and trace elements from sows to piglets: more than an iron deficit?”. Journées de la Recherche Porcine en France 46 (2014): 71-76.
  30. Metzler-Zebeli, et al. “Supplementation of diets for lactating sows with zinc amino acid complex and gastric nutriment-intubation of suckling pigs with zinc methionine on mineral status, intestinal morphology and bacterial translocation in lipopolysaccharide-challenged weaned pigs”. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 94 (2010): 237-249.
  31. Wang Y., et al. “Dietary Zinc Glycine Chelate on Growth Performance, Tissue Mineral Concentrations, and Serum Enzyme Activity in Weanling Piglets”. Biological Trace Element Research 133 (2010): 325-
  32. Case CL and Carlson MS. “Effect of feeding organic and inorganic sources of additional zinc on growth performance and zinc balance in nursery pigs”. Journal Animal Science 80 (2002): 1917-1924.
  33. Carlson MS., et al. “Early and traditionally weaned nursery pigs benefit from phase-feeding pharmacological concentrations of zinc oxide: effect on metallothionein and mineral concentrations”. Journal of Animal Science 77 (1999): 1199-1207.
  34. Kaneko “Clinical biochemistry of domestic animals”. 4th ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press (1989).
  35. Carlson, et al. “Assessment of zinc and copper status in weaned piglets in relation to dietary zinc and copper supply”. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 91 (2007): 19-28.
  36. Dardenne M., et al. “Rationale for the mechanism of zinc interaction in the immune response”. In: CUNNINGHAM-RUNDLES, S. (Ed.) Nutrient modulation: of the immune response. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc (1993): 501-509.
  37. Spears JW., et al. “Effect of dietary zinc source and level on performance, zinc status and imune response of nursery pigs”. In: North Carolina Waste Management Symposium, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, USA, 1999. Proceedings. Raleigh (1999): 376-382.
  38. Van Heugten E., et al. “Effects of organic forms of zinc on growth performance, tissue zinc distribution, and immune response of weanling pigs”. Journal of Animal Science 81 (2003): 2063-2071.
  39. Caine WR., et al. “Intestinal development of pigs from sows fed a zinc amino acid complex”. In: PROCEEDINGS BANFF PORK SEMINAR, 2001, Canadá. Anais… Canadá 12.15 (2001).
  40. Menin A., et al. “Avaliação in vitro do papel do zinco no mecanismo de adesão da Escherichia coli em suínos”. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae 34 (2006): 149-152.
  41. Nabuurs MJA., et al. “Villus height and crypt depth in weaned and unweaned pigs, reared under various circumstances in the Netherlands”. Research in Veterinary Science 55 (1993): 78-84.
  42. Vente-Spreeuwenberg, MAM and Beynen, AC. “Diet-mediated modulation of small intestinal integrity in weaned piglets”. In: Pluske, J.R., Le Dividich, J., Verstegen, M.W.A.Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publisher (2003): 145-199.
  43. Montagne L., et al. “Main intestinal markers associated with the changes in gut architecture and function in piglets after weaning”. British Journal of Nutrition 97 (2007): 45-57.

Citation

Citation: Lúcio Francelino Araújo., et al. “Bone Mineral Density and Weaning Weight of Piglets from First-Parity Sows Fed Zinc during Gestation and Lactation". Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 3.10 (2021): 59-68.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2021 Lúcio Francelino Araújo., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor0.777

Indexed In





News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is December 15, 2021.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US