Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences (ISSN: 2582-3183)

Editorial Volume 3 Issue 1

Re-Evaluation of Milk Components and Stem Cells

Ratan K Choudhary1,2* and Feng-Qi Zhao2

1College of Animal Biotechnology, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
2Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, USA

*Corresponding Author: Ratan K Choudhary, College of Animal Biotechnology, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India and Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, USA.

Received: October 31, 2020; Published: November 21, 2020

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   Milk is a wholesome food, contains nutritional and non-nutritional elements. Nutritional elements like carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals provide building blocks of cell and tissue growth of not only to the young ones but to the adult and elderly humans. Non-nutritional components may include non-cellular biomolecules like immunoglobulins, cytokines and antimicrobials, while the cellular component include various cell types mainly inflammatory cells, lactocytes, and stem cells. Cellular components of milk may provide direct or indirect non-nutritional elements required for the growth of young ones. Of these various cellular components, existence of stem cells in milk are of particular interest. The presence of stem cells in the milk was reported earlier in human [1,2] and later in murine and bovine [3,4]. Molecular characteristics of milk-derived stem cells were positive for hematopoietic stem cell markers (CD34+, CD133+, and CD 123+), mesenchymal stem cell markers (CD90+, CD44+, CD271+, and CD146+) [5], endothelial progenitor cell marker (CD105+) and embryonic stem cell markers (OCT4+, SOX2+, NANOG+, and TRA 60-1+) [1]. Cellular characteristic of milk-derived stem cells includes multipotency in vitro assay and demonstrated adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacity, suggesting the possibility of utilizing these special cells for therapeutic applications [4]. About 30 - 40% of cells of bovine milk were immunopositive with mesenchymal makers - CD90+, CD73+ and CD105+ and pluripotent stem cell markers- SOX2+ and OCT4+ [4].

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References

  1. Hassiotou F., et al. “Breastmilk is a novel source of stem cells with multilineage differentiation potential”. Stem Cells 30 (2012): 2164-2174.
  2. Hassiotou F., et al. “Expression of the Pluripotency Transcription Factor OCT4 in the Normal and Aberrant Mammary Gland”. Frontiers in Oncology 3 (2013): 79.
  3. Aydın MŞ., et al. “Transfer and Integration of Breast Milk Stem Cells to the Brain of Suckling Pups”. Scientific Reports 8 (2018): 14289.
  4. Pipino C., et al. “Identification and characterization of a stem cell-like population in bovine milk: A potential new source for regenerative medicine in veterinary”. Stem Cells and Development 27 (2018): 1587-1597.
  5. Sani M., et al. “Origins of the breast milk-derived cells; an endeavor to find the cell sources”. Cell Biology International 39 (2015): 611-618.
  6. Baldassarre H., et al. “Detection of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers and production enhancement treatments in transgenic goats expressing recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase”. Transgenic Research 20 (2011): 1265-1272.
  7. Choudhary S., et al. “Examination of the xanthosine response on gene expression of mammary epithelial cells using RNA-seq technology”. Journal of Animal Science and Technology 60 (2018): 1-12.
  8. Capuco A V and Choudhary RK. “Symposium review: Determinants of milk production: Understanding population dynamics in the bovine mammary epithelium”. Journal of Dairy Science 3 (2019): 2928-2940.
  9. Greenwood E., et al. “Un (MaSC) ing Stem Cell Dynamics in Mammary Branching Morphogenesis”. Developmental Cell 40 (2017): 328-330.
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Citation

Citation: Ratan K Choudhary and Feng-Qi Zhao. “Re-Evaluation of Milk Components and Stem Cells". Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 3.1 (2021): 01-02.




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