Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences (ISSN: 2582-3183)

Research Article Volume 2 Issue 10

Attempt on the Control of Bacterial Disease: Flacherrie in the Larval Instars of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (L) (Race: Double Hybrid) Through the Utilization Garamycin

Vitthalrao Bhimasha Khyade*

Department of Zoology, Shardabai Pawar Mahila Mahavidyalaya, Pune, India

*Corresponding Author: Vitthalrao Bhimasha Khyade, Department of Zoology, Shardabai Pawar Mahila Mahavidyalaya, Pune, India.

Received: June 19, 2020; Published: September 30, 2020



  The present attempt was planned with the aim of enhancement of resistance in the body of silkworm, Bombyx mori (L) against the infections of bacterial pathogens through the use of Garamycin antibiotics. The bacterial disease: flacherrie is the most significant parameter associated with the loss of silk yield. The loss of appetite; discharge watery feces and vomiting are the common symptoms of infection of bacteria to the larval instars of silkworm, Bombyx mori (L). For the bacterial pathogens, the diseased black thorax septicemia infected larvae of silkworm, Bombyx mori (L) were crushed through the use of using mortar and pestle; the solution was filtered (the filtration method of Levin., et al. 1974); the filtrate was centrifuged (at 4000 - 5000 rpm) for ten minutes; the precipitate (in the form of the pellet) was used for bacterial inoculum. The bacterial sample (inoculum) was streaked in Luria Agar under aseptic conditions and processed for incubation (at 37ºC overnight). After 24 hours, the growth of bacteria was noticed, and it was further processed for sub culture. A bacterial sample was taken through the use of loop; centrifuged for 15 minutes at 4000 rpm and the precipitate (in the form of the pellet) was dissolved in distilled water. Soon after the second moult, larval instars were divided into four groups (Untreated control group; Water treated group; Bacterial inoculum (Genus: Streptococcus bombycis) treated (infected) group and the group treated with Garamycin antibiotics (40 microgam/ml distal water), each with hundred individuals. The larvae of bacterial inoculum treated (infected) group and the group of larvae for antibiotics treatment were infected (treated) with the aqueous solution of bacterial inoculum. This treatment was carried out through smearing the solution bacterial solution onto the surface of leaves of mulberry, Morus alba (L) (M.5 Variety) leaf surface. The treated leaves were allowed for draining. The treated leaves were fed four times to the third instar larvae on the first day (100 grams of leaves for the group of hundred larvae for each time). For the second day and third day, the larvae were fed with normal untreated mulberry leaves. The water treated group of larvae was fed with mulberry leaves smeared with distilled water. The larvae of untreated control and antibiotics treated group were fed with normal untreated leaves for the days: first, second and third. The antibiotics treatment was followed on the fourth day of the third instar. Hundred grams of mulberry leaves were immersed in four hundred milliliter aqueous solution of Garamycin (40 microgam/ml distal water) for half an hour. The leaves were drained completely. The Garamycin treated leaves were used for the feeding on the fourth day (four feedings at the rate of 100 grams of leaves for the group of hundred larvae for each time). Thereafter, the larvae were fed with untreated mulberry leaves to all the groups of larvae of third, fourth and fifth instars. The haemolymph from the larvae (ten larvae from each group) was collected on the fifth day of the fifth instar and processed for electrophoresis. The hundred percent effective rate of rearing (ERR) were reported for the Garamycin treated group. Single female cocoon weight: 1.564 (±0.429) units with the shell ratio: 24.744 units and single male cocoon weight: 1.193 (±0.055) with the shell ratio: 22.967 units were reported for the Garamycin treated group. The variation was detected in the pattern of banding of the protein with significant polymorphism (88.3 percent) with two bands of monomorphic nature; twelve bands of polymorphic nature and three bands of “unique” nature.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Garamycin; Bacterial Flacherrie; Bombyx mori



  1. Taha R H. “Physiological changes of diseased mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L”. M. Sc. thesis, Ain Shams Univ., Faculty of Science (2002).
  2. Choudhury A., et al. “Causal organism of flacherie in the silkworm Antheraea assama Ww: isolation, characterization and its inhibition by garlic extract”. Phytotherapy Research 16 (2002): S89-S90.
  3. Tanada Y and HK Kaya. Insect pathology. Academic Press, San Diego (1993): 666
  4. Acharya A., et al. “Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus: Molecular biology and biotechnological applications for large-scale synthesis of recombinant proteins”. Current Science 28 (2002): 455-465.
  5. Subramanian S., et al. “New paradigm in silkworm disease management using probiotic application of Streptomyces noursei”. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences 3 (2009): 499-501.
  6. Venkatesh KR and A Srivastava. “Relevance of antibiotics with reference to sericulture industry”. IJSN 2 (2010): 97-100.
  7. Aarti Sanjay Dhumal., et al. “The Aqueous Solution of Antibiotics Norfloxacin for Total Protein Contents in the Fifth Instar Larvae of Silkworm, Bombyx mori (L) (Double Hybrid Race) [ (CSR2XCSR27)] x [ (CSR6XCSR26)]”. Journal of Modern Chemistry and Chemical Technology3 (2019).
  8. Hou Y., et al. “Comparative analysis of proteome maps of silkworm hemolymph during different developmental stages”. Proteome Science 8 (2010): 45.
  9. Tanaka H and M Yamakawa. “Regulation of the innate immune responses in the silkworm, Bombyx mori”. ISJ 8 (2011): 59-69.
  10. Jannatun Nesa., et al. “Antimicrobial peptides from Bombyx mori: a splendid immune defense response in silkworms”. The Royal Society of Chemistry (2020: 512-523.
  11. Krishnaswami S., et al. Sericulture Manual –ll: Silk worm rearing. FAO, United Nation’s Rome (1978): 131.
  12. Krishnaswamy S. “New technology of silkworm rearing”. Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Central Silk Board, India, Bulletin (1978): 1-23.
  13. Khyade VB. Influence of juvenoids on silk worm, Bombyx mori (L). Ph.D. Thesis, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, India (2004).
  14. Vitthalrao B Khyade and Vivekanand V Khyade. “The Phytocompounds of Animal Hormone Analogues”. Annals of Plant Sciences5 (2013): 125-137.
  15. Vitthalrao B Khyade. “Influence of Lanoxin Treared Mulberry Leaves on the contents of proteins in the fifth instar larvae of silkworm, Bombyx mori (L) (Race: PM x CSR2). (2014): 8-17)”. Proceeding, Two day UGC sponsored National seminar on, “Recent Trends in Cell Biology, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics”, Organized by Department of Zoology, Balwant College, Vita Tal. Khanapur, Dist. Sangli 415311 (India) (2013).
  16. Vitthalrao B Khyade and Karel Slama. “Screening of acetone solution of FME and Selected Monoterpene Compounds for Juvenile Hormone Activity Through Changes in pattern of Chitin Deposition in the Integument of Fifth instar larvae of silkworm, Bombyx mori (L) (PM x CSR2)”. IJBRITISH3 (2015) 68-90.
  17. Campbell RW and Rodgwaite JD. “The disease of gypsy moth, major components”. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 18 (1971): 101-107.
  18. Femi A., et al. “Isolation, identification, antibiogram and characterization of bacterial pathogens of silkworm, Bombyx mori in South-West Nigeria”. Journal of Biological Sciences 14 (2014): 425-430.
  19. Aneja K R. “Experiments in microbiology, Plant pathology and biotechnology”. New Age International (P) Limited Publeshers, 4th Edition (2003): 376.
  20. Levin MA., et al. “Quantitative large volume sampling technique”. Applied Microbiology 28 (1974): 515-517.
  21. Suparna M K., et al. “Role of antibacterial proteins in different silkworm strains against flacherie”. The Bioscan 3 (2011): 365-369.
  22. VN Yogananda Murthy. “Estimation of protein concentration in different tissues of popular silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) races”. International Journal of Advanced Research1 (2015): 254-261.
  23. Lammli UK. “Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4”. Nature 227 (1970): 680 -685.
  24. Vitthalrao B Khyade and Manfred Eigen. “Key Role of Statistics for the Fortification of Concepts in Agricultural Studies”. International Academic Journal of Innovative Research3 (2018): 32-46.
  25. Sammour R., et al. “Electrophoretic analysis of the seed proteins of some species in the genus Lotus”. Feddes Repertorium3 (1993): 251-257.
  26. Rottenberg A., et al. “Genetic variability in sexually monomorphic and dimorphic populations of Populus euphratica (Salicaceae)”. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 30 (2000): 482-486.
  27. Huang L., et al. “A Genome wide survey for host response of silkworm, Bombyx mori during pathogen Bacillus bombyseptieus infection”. PLoS One12 (2009): e8098.
  28. Izumi S., et al. “Molecular properties and biosynthesis of major plasma proteins in Bombyx mori”. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein Structure 670 (1981): 222-229.
  29. Kim E J., et al. “Inhibition of apoptosis by recombinant 30K protein originating from silkworm haemolymph”. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications3 (2003): 523-528.
  30. Naletova E A., et al. “Isolation and properties of carboxylesterase from haemolymph of the silkworm Bombyx mori L”. Biokhimiia Moscow Russia 47.11 (1982): 1844 -1851.
  31. Nakahara Y., et al. “Purification and characterization of silkworm hemocytes by flow cytometry”. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 4 (2009): 439-448.
  32. Kaito C., et al. “Silkworm larvae as an animal model of bacterial infection pathogenic to humans”. Microbial Pathogenesis4 (2002): 183-190.


Citation: Vitthalrao Bhimasha Khyade. “Attempt on the Control of Bacterial Disease: Flacherrie in the Larval Instars of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (L) (Race: Double Hybrid) Through the Utilization Garamycin". Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 2.10 (2020): 10-22.


Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.008

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is April 30th, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue".
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US