Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences (ASVS)(ISSN: 2582-3183)

Mini Review Volume 2 Issue 7

Ethnoveterinary Practices of Wild Medicinal Plants in Pakistan: A Review

Muhammad Jamil Ahmed*, Farooq Ahmed, Javaid Qayyoom Swati

Department of Botany, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author: Muhammad Jamil Ahmed, Department of Botany, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan.

Received: April 28, 2020; Published: June 05, 2020



  Today, ethnic communities throughout the world retain sound indigenous ethnoveterinary knowledge and mainly depend on medicinal plants as alternative treatments for various livestock ailments. The present review aims to provide the current compilation of wild medicinal plant species practiced as ethnoveterinary herbal medicine by traditional societies of Pakistan. Data was gathered from online databases regarding ethnoveterinary studies in Pakistan from 2000 - 2018. The botanical name, families, parts used, method of administration and diseases treatments were presented by literature review. The literature search revealed a total of 255 wild plant species belonging to 203 genera and 88 families were being in common use to cure 17 categories of livestock diseases. The highest number of wild plant of Asteraceae, followed by Fabaceae, Lamiaceae Euphorbiaceae, Polygonaceae and Solanaceae were used as ethnoveterinary herbal medicine. The most privilege diseases were abdominal worm, mastitis, ague, foot and mouth diseases, skin diseases, lungs and respiratory disorder. Worms’s infestation and parasitic ailments were treated with 67 plant species followed by gastrointestinal ailments, reproductive ailments and miscellaneous category accounted for 66, 43 and 29 species respectively. The highly consumed parts of plant were leaves (29.59%) followed by whole plants (15.98%), aerial parts (10.65%), roots (10.65%) and fruits (8.28%). It is suggested that, the present review will serve as databank and stimulate further pharmacological, clinical investigation for novel drug discovery from natural resource and benefited worldwide.

Keywords: Ethnoveterinary; Medicinal Plants; Animal Disease; Livestock; Pakistan



  1. Habib-ul H., et al. “Ethnoveterinary study of medicinal plants in Malakand Valley, District Dir (Lower), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan”. Irish Veterinary Journal1 (2014): 6.
  2. Tariq A., et al. “Ethnoveterinary study of medicinal plants in a tribal society of Sulaiman range”. Scientific World Journal (2014): 127526.
  3. Ishtiaq M., et al. “Ethnoveterinary medicinal uses of plants from Samani valley Dist. Bhimber, (Azad Kashmir) Pakistan”. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences2 (2006): 390-396.
  4. Ahmed MJ and Akhtar T. “Indigenous knowledge of the use of medicinal plants in Bheri, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan”. Eurean Journal of Integrative Medicine4 (2016): 560-569.
  5. Boxall ABA. “The environmental side effects of medication: How are human and veterinary medicines in soils and water bodies affecting human and environmental health?” EMBO Reports12 (2004): 1110-1116.
  6. Suroowan S., et al. “Ethnoveterinary health management practices using medicinal plants in South Asia-a review”. Veterinary Research Communications2 (2017): 147-168.
  7. Ahmad K., et al. “Ethnoveterinary medicinal plant knowledge and practice among the tribal communities of Thakht-e-Sulaiman hills, west Pakistan”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 170 (2015): 275-283.
  8. Ahmed MJ and Murtaza G. “A study of medicinal plants used as ethnoveterinary: Harnessing potential phytotherapy in Bheri, District Muzaffarabad (Pakistan)”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 159 (2015): 209-214.
  9. Aziz MA., et al. “Cross‐Cultural Analysis of Medicinal Plants commonly used in Ethnoveterinary Practices at South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency, Federally Administrated Tribal Areas (FATA), Pakistan”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 210 (2018): 443-468.
  10. Deeba F., et al. “Appraisal of ethno-veterinary practices used for different ailments in dairy animals in peri-urban areas of Faisalabad (Pakistan)”. International Journal of Agricultural Biology5 (2009): 535-541.
  11. Khattak NS., et al. “Ethno veterinary uses of medicinal plants of district Karak, Pakistan”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 171 (2015): 273-279.
  12. Flora of Pakistan (2012).
  13. Version1.1 (2013).
  14. Qureshi RA., et al. “Indigenous medicinal plants used by local women in southern Himalayan regions of Pakistan”. Pakistan Journal Botany1 (2009): 19-25.
  15. Sindhu ZUD., et al. “Documentation of ethnoveterinary practices used for treatment of different ailments in a selected hilly area of Pakistan”. International Journal of Agricultural and Biology3 (2010): 353-358.
  16. Abbasi AM., et al. “Botanical ethnoveterinary therapies in three districts of the Lesser Himalayas of Pakistan”. Journal of Ethnobiology Ethnomedicine1 (2013): 84.
  17. Hussain A., et al. “An account of the botanical anthelmintics used in traditional veterinary practices in Sahiwal district of Punjab, Pakistan”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology1 (2008): 185-190.
  18. Khan FM. “Ethno-veterinary medicinal usage of flora of Greater Cholistan desert (Pakistan)”. Pakistan Veterinary Journal2 (2009): 75-80.
  19. Shah GM., et al. “Ethno-phyto-veterinary medicines in northern Pakistan”. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences3 (2012): 791-797.
  20. Aziz MA., et al. “Traditional uses of medicinal plants used by Indigenous communities for veterinary practices at Bajaur Agency, Pakistan”. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine1 (2018): 11.
  21. Khan MA., et al. “Ethno veterinary medicinal uses of plants of Poonch Valley Azad Kashmir”. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research 4 (2012): 495-507.
  22. , et al. “Ethnobotanical indices based ethnoveterinary plant profile of Jabban hills, Malakand, Hindukush range, Pakistan”. Pakistan Journal Botany 50.5 (2018): 1899-1905.
  23. Mussarat S., et al. “Ethnopharmacological assessment of medicinal plants used against livestock infections by the people living around Indus river”. Biomed Research International (2014): 616858.
  24. Raziq A., et al. “Ethnoveterinary treatments by dromedary camel herders in the Suleiman Mountainous Region in Pakistan: an observation and questionnaire study”. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine1 (2010): 16.
  25. Dilshad SMR., et al. “An inventory of the ethnoveterinary practices for reproductive disorders in cattle and buffaloes, Sargodha district of Pakistan”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology3 (2008): 393-402.
  26. Raza MA., et al. “Ethno-botanical remedies used by pastoralists for the treatment of livestock diseases in Cholistan desert, Pakistan”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology1 (2014): 333-342.
  27. Hussain A., et al. “Anthelmintic activity of Trianthema portulacastrum and Musa paradisiaca L. against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep”. Veterimary Parasitology 179.1-3 (2011) 92-99.
  28. Tipu M., et al. “New dimension of medicinal plants as animal feed”. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 3 (2006): 144-148.
  29. Farooq Z., et al. “Ethnoveterinary practices for the treatment of parasitic diseases in livestock in Cholistan desert (Pakistan)”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 118 (2008): 213-219.
  30. Khan KU., et al. “Investigation of traditional veterinary phytomedicines used in Deosai Plateau, Pakistan”. Global Veterinaria 4 (2015): 381-388.


Citation: Muhammad Jamil Ahmed., et al. “Ethnoveterinary Practices of Wild Medicinal Plants in Pakistan: A Review”. Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 2.7 (2020): 03-17.


Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.008

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 20, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US