Acta Scientific Pharmacology

Review Article Volume 3 Issue 8

Application of Nanotechnology Towards Improved Nutraceuticals, Pharmaceuticals and Theranostics: An Overview

Debashis Banerjee*

Department of Biotechnology, Atmiya University, Yogidham Gurukul, Rajkot, India

*Corresponding Author: Debashis Banerjee, Department of Biotechnology, Atmiya University, Yogidham Gurukul, Rajkot, India.

Received: June 21, 2022 Published: July 21, 2022


Nanotechnology is an emerging field which has provided long lasting solutions to many areas of human health e.g., such as food, nutrition, medicine etc. To meet the increasing demand for more value-added food and pharmaceutical substances, nutritionists, scientists and researchers have turned to nanotechnology and other similar technologies to provide better solutions to persistent problems in these fields. These include efficient targeted drug delivery systems for pharmaceutical compounds and bioavailability of the nutritional compounds in food substances, etc. Already quite a few efficacious and improved nanotechnology-based pharma and dietary products are available in the market, enhancing significantly the satisfaction of the customers and manufacturers alike. This particular review deals specifically with the applications of nanotechnology towards better nutraceuticals, therapeutics, especially drug delivery systems for pharmaceutical molecules and theranostics, combining both diagnostics and therapy.

Keywords: Nanotechnology; Nanoparticles; Nutraceuticals; Theranostics; Nanoencapsulation


  1. Andlauer W and Fürst P. “Nutraceuticals: a piece of history, present status and outlook”. Food Research International 35 (2002): 171-176.
  2. Bagchi D and Swaroop A. “Nutraceutical supplements, functional and medicinal food regulations in the United States with a special emphasis on food label claims”. Bioactive Compounds in Health and Disease 1 (2018): 1-19.
  3. Benetti F., et al. “Effects of metalloid-based nanomaterials on essential element homeostasis: The central role of nanometallomics for nanotoxicology”. Metallomics 6 (2014): 729-747.
  4. Bodeker G. “Medicinal Plants for Wellness in the New US $3.7 Trillion Global Wellness Industry”. (2017).
  5. Buzea C., et al. “Nanomaterials and nanoparticles: sources and toxicity”. Biointerphases 2 (2007): 17-71.
  6. Cannon CP., et al. “Ezetimibe added to statin therapy after acute coronary syndrome”. The New England Journal of Medicine 72 (2015): 2387-2397.
  7. Chaturvedi S., et al. “Role of Nutraceuticals in health promotion”. Health 4 (2011): 5.
  8. Chaudhry Q., et al. “Applications and implications of nanotechnologies for the food sector”. Food Additives and Contaminants3 (2008): 241-258.
  9. Chen H., et al. “Nanotechnology in nutraceuticals and functional foods”. Food Technology 603 (2006): 6-30.
  10. Cho Y., et al. “Some cases in applications of nanotechnology to food and agricultural systems”. BioChip Journal3 (2008): 183-185.
  11. Clements DJ and Xiao H. “Is nano safe in foods? Establishing the factors impacting the gastrointestinal fate and toxicity of organic and inorganic food-grade nanoparticles”. Npj Science of Food 1 (2017): 1-6.
  12. El Sohaimy S. “Functional foods and nutraceuticals-modern approach to food science”. World Applied Sciences Journal 20 (2012): 691-708.
  13. Gonçalves RFS., et al. “Advances in nutraceutical delivery systems: From formulation design for bioavailability enhancement to efficacy and safety evaluation”. Trends in Food Science and Technology 78 (2018): 270-291.
  14. Hoppe PP., et al. “Synthetic and tomato-based lycopene have identical bioavailability in humans”. European Journal of Nutrition5 (2003): 272-278.
  15. Kalra E K. “Nutraceutical-definition and introduction”. American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 5 (2003): 27-28.
  16. Kothamasu P., et al. “Nanocapsules: The Weapons for Novel Drug Delivery Systems”. BioImpacts2 (2012): 71-81.
  17. Levi S., et al. “Limonene encapsulation in alginate/poly (vinyl alcohol)”. Procedia Food Science 1 (2011): 1816-1820.
  18. Li Y., et al. “The role of nutraceuticals in pancreatic cancer prevention and therapy: Targeting cellular signalling, miRNAs and epigenome”. Pancreas1 (2015): 1-4.
  19. Nair HB., et al. “Delivery of anti-inflammatory nutraceuticals by nanoparticles for the prevention and treatment of cancer”. Biochemical Pharmacology12 (2010): 1833-1843.
  20. Nel A., et al. “Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel”. Science 311 (2006): 622-627.
  21. Jones C F and Grainger DW. “In vitro assessments of nanomaterial toxicity”. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 61 (2009): 438-456.
  22. Pierzchalski A., et al. “Cytomics and nano-bioengineering”. Cytometry Part B -Clinical Cytometry 6 (2008): 416-426.
  23. Prabu SL., et al. “Nutraceuticals: a review”. Elixir Pharmacy 46 (2012): 8372-8377.
  24. Roco MC and Bainbridge WS. “Societal Implications of Nanoscience Nanotechnology”. Kluwer Academic Publishers Boston (2001): 3-4.
  25. Shaikh J., et al. “Nanoparticle encapsulation improves oral bioavailability of curcumin by at least 9-fold when compared to curcumin administered with piperine as absorption enhancer”. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 37 (2009): 223-230.
  26. Microcapsules TC. “Functional Foods”. In: En C Trugo, M Finglas, editors. Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (3892-3903), Baltimore, Maryland, Academic Press (2003).
  27. Weiss J., et al. “Functional materials in food nanotechnology”. Journal of Food Science 71 (2006): 107-116.
  28. Yada RY., et al. “Engineered nanoscale food ingredients: Evaluation of current knowledge on material characteristics relevant to uptake from the gastrointestinal tract”. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety4 (2014): 730-744.
  29. Yokel R A and MacPhail R C. “Engineered nanomaterials: exposures, hazards, and risk prevention”. Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology 6 (2011).
  30. Soares S., et al. “Nanomedicine: Principles, Properties, and Regulatory Issues”. Frontiers in Chemistry 6 (2018): 360.
  31. Elkhoury K., et al. “Engineering Smart Targeting Nanovesicles and Their Combination with Hydrogels for Controlled Drug Delivery”. Pharmaceutics 9 (2020): 8-49.
  32. Shi J., et al. “Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering: From Discovery to Applications”. Nano Letters 9 (2010): 3223-3230.
  33. Matsumura Y and Maeda H. “A new concept for macromolecular therapeutics in cancer chemotherapy: mechanism of tumoritropic accumulation of proteins and the antitumor agent smancs”. Cancer Research 46 (1986): 6387-6392.
  34. Anderson DG., et al. “A polymer library approach to suicide gene therapy for cancer”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A 101 (2004): 16028-16033.
  35. Akin A., et al. “A combinatorial library of lipid-like materials for delivery of RNAi therapeutics”. Nature Biotechnology 26 (2008): 561-569.
  36. Woodrow KA., et al. “Intravaginal gene silencing using biodegradable polymer nanoparticles densely loaded with small-interfering RNA”. Nature materials 8 (2009): 526-533.
  37. Bartlett DW., et al. “Impact of tumor-specific targeting on the biodistribution and efficacy of siRNA nanoparticles measured by multimodality in vivo imaging”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A 104 (2007): 15549-15554.
  38. Gabathuler R. “Approaches to transport therapeutic drugs across the blood-brain barrier to treat brain diseases”. Neurobiology of Disease 37 (2010): 48-57.
  39. Davis ME., et al. “Nanoparticle therapeutics: an emerging treatment modality for cancer”. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 7 (2008): 771-782.
  40. Arvizo R., et al. “Gold nanoparticles: Opportunities and Challenges in Nanomedicine”. Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery6 (2010): 753-763.
  41. Akbarzadeh A., et al. “Magnetic nanoparticles: preparation, physical properties, and applications in biomedicine”. Nanoscale Research Letters 7 (2012): 144.
  42. Patra JK., et al. “Nano based drug delivery systems: recent developments and future prospects”. Journal of Nanobiotechnology 16 (2017): 71.
  43. Malhotra BD and Ali MA. “Nanomaterials for Biosensors: Fundamentals and Applications”. Elsevier Public Health Emergency Collection (2018): 1-74.
  44. Escobar-Garcia JD., et al. “Room Temperature Nanoencapsulation of Bioactive Eicosapentaenoic Acid Rich Oil within Whey Protein Microparticles”. Nanomaterials (Basel)3 (2021): 575-580.
  45. Paul S D and Dewangan D. “Nanotechnology and Neutraceuticals”. International Journal of Nanomaterials, Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine1 (2022): 9-12.
  46. Swamy MK and Sinniah UR. “Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth.): botany, agrotechnology and biotechnological aspects”. Industrial Crops and Products 87 (2016): 161-176.
  47. Mohanty SK., et al. “Botanical, agronomical, Phyto‑chemical, pharmacological, and biotechnological aspects”. Molecules 10 (2017): 19-22.
  48. Martinho N., et al. “Recent advances in drug delivery systems”. Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology 2 (2011): 5-10.
  49. Jahangirian H., et al. “A review of drug delivery systems based on nanotechnology and green chemistry: green nanomedicine”. International Journal of Nanomedicine 12 (2017): 29-57.
  50. Arayne MS., et al. “Nanoparticles in delivery of cardiovascular drugs”. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 20 (2007): 340-348.
  51. Patra JK and Baek K-H. “Green nanobiotechnology: factors affecting synthesis and characterization techniques”. Journal of Nanomaterials (2014): 214-219.
  52. Joseph RR and Venkatraman SS. “Drug delivery to the eye: what benefits do nanocarriers offer?”. Nanomedicine 12 (2017): 683-702.
  53. Rudramurthy GR., et al. “Nano‑particles: alternatives against drug-resistant pathogenic microbes”. Molecules 21 (2016): 836.
  54. Jahangirian H., et al. “A review of drug delivery systems based on nanotechnology and green chemistry: green nanomedicine”. International Journal of Nanomedicine 12 (2017): 29-57.
  55. Lam P-L., et al. “Recent advances in green nanoparticulate systems for drug delivery: efficient delivery and safety concern”. Nanomedicine 12 (2017): 357-385.
  56. Shi X., et al. “Spontaneous formation of functionalized den‑drimer-stabilized gold nanoparticles”. Journal of Physical Chemistry C 112 (2008): 8251-8258.
  57. Park S-H., et al. “Loading of gold nanoparticles inside the DPPC bilayers of liposome and their effects on membrane fluidities”. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 48 (2006): 112-118.
  58. Mirza AZ and Siddiqui FA. “Nanomedicine and drug delivery: a mini review”. International Nano Letters 4 (2014): 94.
  59. Kabanov AV., et al. “Pluronic® block copolymers: novel functional molecules for gene therapy”. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 54 (2002): 223-233.
  60. Krauel K., et al. “Entrapment of bioactive molecules in poly (alkylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles”. American Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2 (2004): 251-259.
  61. Bonifácio BV., et al. “Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and herbal medicines: a review”. International Journal of Nanomedicine1 (2014).
  62. Watkins R., et al. “Natural product-based nano‑medicine: recent advances and issues”. International Journal of Nanomedicine 10 (2015): 55-60.
  63. Tan Q., et al. “Preparation and evaluation of quercetinloaded lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles for topical delivery”. International Journal of Nanomedicine 6 (2011): 16-21.
  64. Sanna V., et al. “Development of novel cationic chitosan-and anionic alginate-coated poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles for controlled release and light protection of resveratrol”. International Journal of Nanomedicine 7 (2012): 5501.
  65. Casettari L and Illum L. “Chitosan in nasal delivery systems for therapeutic drugs”. Journal of Control Release 190 (2014): 189-200.
  66. Srinivas PR., et al. “Nanotechnology research: applications in nutritional sciences”. The Journal of Nutrition1 (2010): 119-124.
  67. Cushen M., et al. “Nanotechnologies in the food industry -Recent developments, risks and regulation”. Trends in Food Science and Technology1 (2012): 30-46.
  68. Radad K., et al. “Recent advances in benefits and hazards of engineered nanoparticles”. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology3 (2012): 661-672.
  69. Borm PJ., et al. “The potential risks of nanomaterials: a review carried out for ECETOC”. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 3 (2006): 1-11.
  70. Muller J., et al. “Respiratory toxicity of multi-wall carbon nanotubes”. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology3 (2005): 221-231.
  71. Nasir A. “Nanotechnology and dermatology: Part II--risks of nanotechnology”. Clinics in Dermatology,5 (2010): 581-588.
  72. Nel A., et al. “Toxic potential of materials at the nano level”. Science5761 (2006): 622-627.
  73. Chen Z., et al. “Acute toxicological effects of copper nanoparticles in vivo”. Toxicology Letters2 (2006): 109-120.
  74. Powell JJ., et al. “Immune potentiation of ultrafine dietary particles in normal subjects and patients with inflammatory bowel disease”. Journal of Autoimmunity1 (2000): 99-105.
  75. Galli CL. “The potential risks arising from nanoscience and nanotechnologies on food and feed safety”. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Journal 958 (2009): 1-39.
  76. Halahakoon JA. “Applications of nanotechnology in pharmaceutics”. Presentation in Biology 55 (2019): 80-86.
  77. Jokerst JV and Gambhir SS. “Molecular imaging with theranostic nanoparticles”. Accounts of Chemical Research10 (2011): 1050-1060.
  78. Xie J., et al. “Nanoparticle-based theranostic agents”. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews11 (2010): 1064-1079.
  79. Lammers T., et al. “Theranostic nanomedicine”. Accounts of Chemical Research10 (2011): 1029-1038.
  80. Blackwell KL., et al. “Overall survival benefit with lapatinib in combination with trastuzumab for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer: final results from the EGF104900 Study”. Journal of Clinical Oncology21 (2012): 2585-2592.
  81. Benezra M., et al. “Multimodal silica nanoparticles are effective cancer-targeted probes in a model of human melanoma”. Journal of Clinical Investigation7 (2011): 2768-2780.
  82. Thakor AS and Gambhir SS. “Nanooncology: the future of cancer diagnosis and therapy”. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians6 (2013): 395-418.
  83. Bhuniya S., et al. “An activatable theranostic for targeted cancer therapy and imaging”. Angewandte Chemie 17 (2014): 4469-4474.
  84. Verleysen E., et al. “Physicochemical characterization of nanoparticles in food additives in the context of risk identification”. EFSA External Scientific Report (2021).
  85. More S., et al. “Guidance on technical requirements for regulated food and feed product applications to establish the presence of small particles including nanoparticles”. EFSA Journal Guidance Document (2021).


Citation: Debashis Banerjee. “Application of Nanotechnology Towards Improved Nutraceuticals, Pharmaceuticals and Theranostics: An Overview". Acta Scientific Pharmacology 3.8 (2022): 21-34.


Copyright: © 2022 Debashis Banerjee. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate36%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is June 25, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US