Side Effects of the Largely Used Drug Indapamide; A Study on Ants as Models
Independent Researcher, Retired from the Biology of Organisms Department, University of Brussels, Belgium
*Corresponding Author: Marie-Claire Cammaerts, Independent Researcher, Retired from the Biology of Organisms Department, University of Brussels, Belgium.
November 26, 2021 Published: December 31, 2021
Indapamide is a drug used since a long time for treating patients suffering from hypertension, edema or heart problems. Its side effects have never been precisely defined though, due to its modes of action, it may have such effects. Working on ants as models, we found that effectively this drug impacted the ants’ food intake, general activity, audacity, sensory perception and social relationships. Indapamide did not affect the ants’ state of stress, cognition, learning and memorization. The ants did not adapt themselves to the side effects of indapamide and developed no dependence on its consumption. Habituation to the researched effect of the drug could not be examined in ants, and should be studied in humans. In ants, the effect of indapamide slowly decreased after weaning, according to a quadratic function of time, and fully vanished in 24 hours, what allowed approving the general daily consumption of 2.50 mg. A large individual variability seemed to exist in ants. We thus suggest to examine in humans the occurrence of the different side effects observed in ants, some potential habituation to the drug effect, and to propose, case-by-case, the best possible dosage of the drug.
Keywords: Activity; Antihypertensive Drugs; Cognition; Diuretics; Memory; Myrmica sabuleti; Social Relationships
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