Acta Scientific Pharmacology

Research Article Volume 2 Issue 9

The Need for Intensified Pharmacovigilance in the Pharmacology of Contraception

Kurt Kraetschmer*

Department of Reproductive Medicine, Austrian American Medical Research Institute, Austria

*Corresponding Author: Kurt Kraetschmer, Department of Reproductive Medicine, Austrian American Medical Research Institute, Austria.

Received: July 19, 2021; Published: August 24, 2021


  The research article aims at determining as to whether or not pharmacovigilance accomplishes its objective to reveal adverse events and other unresolved problems in the pharmacology of contraception. To make this determination a critical method is applied which analyses publications of high impact research, information material emanating from the most influential health agencies, and documents disseminated by market-leading pharmaceutical companies. An analysis of the findings by pharmacovigilance in various areas pertaining to contraception shows that numerous unresolved problem still await a solution. Consequently, the article argues that pharmacovigilance has to intensify its efforts to bring to light adverse events that pose a threat to the health of women using contraceptive products.

  For the intensification of pharmacovigilance, it is suggested that efforts be increased in three areas: research, marketing, and clinical practice. For researchers investigations in pharmacovigilance should be made as attractive as research topics suggested by pharmaceutical companies which promise financial remunerations for promoting their products in research publications. Manufacturers should pay heightened attention to post-marketing experiences and peruse them for the amelioration of their products. In the clinical practice grievance mechanisms should be implemented which allow instant and effective reports about adverse events or harm experienced.

Keywords: Pharmacovigilance; Pharmacology; Vaccine


  1. Kraetschmer K. “Is Contraception Really Safe?” International Journal of Sexual and Reproductive Health 1 (2019): 1-11.
  2. Ganong WF. “Review of Medical Physiology”. East Norwalk, Connecticut: Prentice-Hall International Inc. (17th ed.) (1995).
  3. Moeller K-T., et al. “Exspiratorische CO2-Messung in der Zyklusüberwachung - ein einfacher und zuverlässiger Marker zur Bestimmung der fertilen Tage”. Journal für Fertilität und Reproduktion1 (2013): 7-12.
  4. Breath ilo Zyklustracking (2021).
  5. “Klinisches Wörterbuch”. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter (256th ed.) (1990): 888.
  6. Gröger S and Grüne B. “Kontrazeption”. In: Diedrich K, ed. Gynäkologie and Geburtshilfe. Berlin: Springer (2000): 60-87.
  7. Curtis KM and Peipert JF. “Long-Acting Reversible Contraception”. The New England Journal of Medicine 376 (2017): 461-468. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMcp1608736.
  8. Trussell J., et al. “Emergency Contraception: A Last Chance to Prevent Unintended Pregnancy June”. Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton NJ 08544, USA (2017).
  9. “Ulipristal acetate” (2021).
  10. Trussell J. “Contraceptive efficacy”. Table 3-2. In: Hatcher RA, Trussell J, Nelson AL, Cates W, Kowal D, Policar M. Contraceptive Technology: Twentieth Revised Edition. New York, NY: Ardent Media (2011).
  11. Bayer Information. Mirena. Patient information booklet, July 2008. Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc. All rights reserved. component codes July. Wayne NJ (2008).
  12. Bayer-Hormonspiralen Mirena, Jaydess, Kyleena: Psychisch (2017).
  13. “WHO – Family Planning/contraceptive methods” (2020).
  14. Mayo Clinic. “Morning-after pill” (2021).
  15. Myong-Jin Kim and Venkateswar Jarugula. “Clinical Pharmacology in Women's Health: Current Status and Opportunities”. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology2 (2020): S7-S10.
  16. “Oral Contraceptives”. Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology (2021).
  17. “Pharmacology of oral contraceptives”. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 11.3 (1968): 632-644.
  18. Laura O'Mahony., et al. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology6 (2015): 1315-1323.
  19. “Expert Institute” (2021).
  20. Washington Post (2018).
  21. Washington Post. Bayer did not report thousands of Essure complaints to FDA (2020).
  22. Hargreave M., et al. “Maternal use of hormonal contraception and risk of childhood leukaemia: a nationwide, population-based cohort study”. The Lancet Oncology10 (2018): 1307-1314.
  23. Gènéthique - Contraceptive pill: European Medicines Agency demands warnings about the risk of depression and suicide. Publié le: 10 (2018).
  24. Bhanwra S and Ahluwalia K. “The association of oral contraceptive pills with increase in intraocular pressure: Time for pharmacovigilance to step in”. Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics1 (2015): 51-52.
  25. Code of Medical Ethics. Current Opinions. American Medical Association. Chicago, Illinois (1992).
  26. Kraetschmer K. “Topical Issues in Translational Pharmacology and Pharmaceuticovigilance: Can Pharmacological Research on Birth Control and Contraception Meet the Requirements of Bioethical Standards?” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Pharmacology (2019): 87-104.
  27. Morelli I. Kleine Pille, grosse Folgen. Kleine Pille, große Folgen: Wie Hormone dich krank machen (2021).
  28. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2017).
  29. Kraetschmer K. “Can Ratings of Contraceptive Methods Motivate Women to Engage in Family Planning and Birth Control? A Review”. Journal of Gynecology and Women's Health 4 (2018): 555817.
  30. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Approved Methods of Birth Control (2013).
  31. Beers MH and Berkow R. (editors) MSD Manual. Whitehouse Station, N.J. USA: Merck and Co. Inc. (17th ed.) (1999).


Citation: Kurt Kraetschmer. “The Need for Intensified Pharmacovigilance in the Pharmacology of Contraception".Acta Scientific Pharmacology 2.9 (2021): 11-19.


Copyright: © 2020 Kurt Kraetschmer. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate36%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US