Acta Scientific Neurology (ASNE) (ISSN: 2582-1121)

Opinion Volume 6 Issue 6

Neurobiological and Genetic Correlates of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD): Are Powerful Psychostimulants the Answer?

Kenneth Blum1,2,10*, Abdalla Bowirrat2, Panayotis K Thanos3, Shannon Klein3, David Baron1, Catherine Dennen4, Elizabeth Gilley10, Paul Carney5, Rene Cortese6, Mark S Gold7, Asim Gupta8 and Rajendra D Badgaiyan9

1Division of Substance Use Disorder and Behavioral Addictions, Center For Sports, Exercise and Mental Health, Western University Health Sciences, Lebanon, OR., USA
2Department of Molecular Biology and Adelson School of Medicine, Ariel University, Ariel, Israel
3Department of Psychology and Behavioral Neuropharmacology and Neuroimaging Laboratory on Addictions (BNNLA), Research Institute on Addictions, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY., USA
4Department of Family Medicine, Jefferson Health Northeast, Philadelphia, PA, USA
5 Division Pediatric Neurology, University of Missouri, School of Medicine, Columbia, MO., USA
6Department of Child Health – Child Health Research Institute and Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women’s Health School of Medicine, University of Missouri, MO., USA
7Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA
8Future Biologics, Lawrenceville, GA, USA.
9Department of Psychiatry, Mt. Sinai School of Medicne, New York, NY., USA
10The Elle Foundation Research Institute, West Palm Beach, West Palm Beach, FL, USA

*Corresponding Author: Kenneth Blum, Division of Substance Use Disorder and Behavioral Addictions, Center For Sports, Exercise and Mental Health, Western University Health Sciences, Lebanon, OR., USA.

Received: April 20, 2023; Published: May 28, 2023


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is primarily genetic, prevalent, and complicated. It can be incapacitating in its severity, disrupting normal functioning in every aspect of life [1]. Its underlying neurogenetic etiology, compromises brain function. 60 years of scientific evidence from diverse research investigation supports the statements above. Evidence from neurogenetic, neutra-ceutical amino acid therapy and epigenomic studies have enlarged perspective and provided novel resources for an informed precision response. However many professionals are uniformed of the most recent advancements. Misconceptions persist. They involve individual variances and different forms of ADHD which have led some to believe that ADHD does not really exist, or that all children show symptoms of ADHD in their development.


  1. Faraone SV and Larsson H. “Genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder”. Molecular Psychiatry4 (2019): 562-575.
  2. Comings DE., et al. “Neurogenetic interactions and aberrant behavioral co-morbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): dispelling myths”. Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2 (2005): 50.
  3. Rostain AL. “Cultural issues, myths, misinformation, and health care-seeking behaviors of hispanic patients with ADHD and their families”. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1 (2015): e2.
  4. Tsujii N., et al. “Efficacy and Safety of Medication for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents with Common Comorbidities: A Systematic Review”. Neurology Therapy2 (2021): 499-522.
  5. Catalá-López F., et al. “Mortality in Persons With Autism Spectrum Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis”. JAMA Pediatrics4 (2022): e216401.
  6. Çelebi F and Ünal D. “Self-esteem and clinical features in a clinical sample of children with ADHD and social anxiety disorder”. Nord Journal of Psychiatry4 (2021): 286-291.
  7. Catalá-López F., et al. “The pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: A systematic review with network meta-analyses of randomized trials”. PLoS One7 (2017): e0180355.
  8. Gold MS., et al. “Low dopamine function in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: should genotyping signify early diagnosis in children?” Postgraduate Medicine1 (2014): 153-177.
  9. Dark C., et al. “The role of ADHD associated genes in neurodevelopment”. Developmental Biology2 (2018): 69-83.
  10. Grimm O., et al. “Genetics of ADHD: What Should the Clinician Know?” Current Psychiatry Reports4 (2020): 18.
  11. Katzman MA., et al. “Adult ADHD and comorbid disorders: clinical implications of a dimensional approach”. BMC Psychiatry1 (2017): 302.
  12. De Crescenzo F., et al. “Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of adults with ADHD: a meta-review”. Evidence-Based Mental Health 1 (2017): 4-11.
  13. Blum K., et al. “Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome”. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment5 (2008): 893-918.
  14. Kanarik M., et al. “ADHD co-morbidities: A review of implication of gene × environment effects with dopamine-related genes”. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 139 (2022): 104757.
  15. Mota NR., et al. “NCAM1-TTC12-ANKK1-DRD2 gene cluster and the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of adults with ADHD”. American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics6 (2012): 433-444.
  16. Gadow KD., et al. “Association of dopamine gene variants, emotion dysregulation and ADHD in autism spectrum disorder”. Research in Developmental Disabilities 7 (2014): 1658-1665.
  17. Wang Y., et al. “Polygenic risk of genes involved in the catecholamine and serotonin pathways for ADHD in children”. Neuroscience Letter 760 (2021): 136086.
  18. Picci G., et al. “Effects of OPRM1 and DRD2 on brain structure in drug-naïve adolescents: Genetic and neural vulnerabilities to substance use”. Psychopharmacology (Berl)1 (2022): 141-152.
  19. Modestino EJ., et al. “Reward Deficiency Syndrome: Attentional/Arousal Subtypes, Limitations of Current Diagnostic Nosology, and Future Research”. Reward Deficiency Syndrome 1 (2015): 6-9.
  20. Blum K., et al. “Epigenetic Repair of Terrifying Lucid Dreams by Enhanced Brain Reward Functional Connectivity and Induction of Dopaminergic Homeostatic Signaling”. Current Psychopharmacology 10 (2021): 10.2174/2211556010666210215153513.
  21. Blum K., et al. “A Novel Precision Approach to Overcome the "Addiction Pandemic" by Incorporating Genetic Addiction Risk Severity (GARS) and Dopamine Homeostasis Restoration”. Journal of Personalized Medicine 3 (2021): 212.
  22. Faraone SV., et al. “The World Federation of ADHD International Consensus Statement: 208 Evidence-based conclusions about the disorder”. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 128 (2021): 789-818.
  23. Rothman RB., et al. “Dual dopamine/serotonin releasers as potential medications for stimulant and alcohol addictions”. AAPS Journal1 (2007): E1-10.
  24. Shellenberg TP., et al. “An update on the clinical pharmacology of methylphenidate: therapeutic efficacy, abuse potential and future considerations”. Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology 8 (2020): 825-833.
  25. Richer K., et al. “Chronic treatment and abstinence from methylphenidate exposure dose-dependently changes glucose metabolism in the rat brain”. Brain Research 1780 (2022): 147799.
  26. Moon C., et al. “Fluoxetine Potentiates Oral Methylphenidate-Induced Gene Regulation in the Rat Striatum”. Molecular Neurobiology10 (2021): 4856-4870.
  27. Kaiser A., et al. “Effects of a single-dose methylphenidate challenge on resting-state functional connectivity in stimulant-treatment naive children and adults with ADHD”. Human Brain Mapping (2022).
  28. Robison LS., et al. “Chronic oral methylphenidate treatment reversibly increases striatal dopamine transporter and dopamine type 1 receptor binding in rats”. Journal of Neural Transmission (Vienna)5 (2017): 655-667.
  29. Johnson RJ., et al. “Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: is it time to reappraise the role of sugar consumption?” Postgraduate Medicine5 (2011): 39-49.
  30. Chamberlain SR., et al. “Screening for adult ADHD using brief rating tools: What can we conclude from a positive screen? Some caveats”. Comprehensive Psychiatry 106 (2021): 152224.
  31. Adler L and Cohen J. “Diagnosis and evaluation of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 2 (2004): 187-201.
  32. Long Y., et al. “Distinct brain structural abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders: A comparative meta-analysis”. Translational Psychiatry 12 (2022): 368.
  33. Meade CS., et al. “Cocaine-related alterations in fronto-parietal gray matter volume correlate with trait and behavioral impulsivity”. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 206 (2020): 107757.
  34. Blum K., et al. “In Search of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)-free Controls: The "Holy Grail" in Genetic Addiction Risk Testing”. Current on Psychopharmacology1 (2020): 7-21.


Citation: Kenneth Blum., et al. “Neurobiological and Genetic Correlates of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD): Are Powerful Psychostimulants the Answer?" Acta Scientific Neurology 6.6 (2023): 46-51.


Copyright: © 2023 Kenneth Blum., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate32%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US