Neurobiological and Genetic Correlates of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD):
Are Powerful Psychostimulants the Answer?
Kenneth Blum1,2,10*, Abdalla Bowirrat2, Panayotis K Thanos3, Shannon Klein3, David Baron1, Catherine Dennen4, Elizabeth Gilley10, Paul
Carney5, Rene Cortese6, Mark S Gold7, Asim Gupta8 and Rajendra D Badgaiyan9
1Division of Substance Use Disorder and Behavioral Addictions, Center For Sports,
Exercise and Mental Health, Western University Health Sciences, Lebanon, OR., USA
2Department of Molecular Biology and Adelson School of Medicine, Ariel University,
3Department of Psychology and Behavioral Neuropharmacology and Neuroimaging
Laboratory on Addictions (BNNLA), Research Institute on Addictions, University at
Buffalo, Buffalo, NY., USA
4Department of Family Medicine, Jefferson Health Northeast, Philadelphia, PA, USA
5 Division Pediatric Neurology, University of Missouri, School of Medicine, Columbia,
6Department of Child Health – Child Health Research Institute and Department of
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women’s Health School of Medicine, University of Missouri, MO., USA
7Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA
8Future Biologics, Lawrenceville, GA, USA.
9Department of Psychiatry, Mt. Sinai School of Medicne, New York, NY., USA
10The Elle Foundation Research Institute, West Palm Beach, West Palm Beach, FL, USA
*Corresponding Author: Kenneth Blum, Division of Substance Use Disorder and
Behavioral Addictions, Center For Sports, Exercise and Mental Health, Western
University Health Sciences, Lebanon, OR., USA.
April 20, 2023; Published: May 28, 2023
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is primarily genetic, prevalent, and complicated. It can be incapacitating in its severity, disrupting normal functioning in every aspect of life . Its underlying neurogenetic etiology, compromises brain function. 60 years of scientific evidence from diverse research investigation supports the statements above. Evidence from neurogenetic, neutra-ceutical amino acid therapy and epigenomic studies have enlarged perspective and provided novel resources for an informed precision response. However many professionals are uniformed of the most recent advancements. Misconceptions persist. They involve individual variances and different forms of ADHD which have led some to believe that ADHD does not really exist, or that all children show symptoms of ADHD in their development.
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