Pituitary Stem Cells: What We Know So Far (Part 2)
Ömer Sönmez, Duru Baykal and Aydin Sav*
Yeditepe University, School of Medicine, Department of Medical Pathology
*Corresponding Author: Aydin Sav, Yeditepe University, School of Medicine,
Department of Medical Pathology.
March 14, 2023; Published: April 23, 2023
The hypophysis is a pea-sized gland located in the sella turcica. The gland's primary function is to regulate the hormonal activity, which is controlled by the outputs received from the hypothalamus. These highly capable cells are derived from pituitary stem cells (PSCs) during the embryogenesis. The previous articles prove that the stem cells are a potential treatment option for a wide spectrum of pathologies. However, it is also undeniable that more research must be done to improve our knowledge of PSCs and to integrate PSCs into our treatment strategies. Our article summarizes and presents the latest findings regarding the biological properties of PSCs. The following review letter focuses on the stemness markers in the pituitary, the differences between the neonatal and adult hypophysis, biologic properties of pituitary diseases, latest approaches, and future aspects of PSCs. The discussed stem cell markers are SOX2, Nestin, Sca-1, E-cadherin, S100, Prop1, Oct4, Bmi1, CD133, Beta-catenin, Pax6, Notch2, Notch3, Pit1, p57, TpiT, and AIP. Beside the roles of stemness markers, the latest advancements concerning the PSCs such as CRISPR/Cas9 technique and organoid formation are reviewed.
Keywords: Pituitary Stem Cells; Hypothalamus; CRISPR/Cas9; Anterior Pituitary
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