Whiplash Injuries: A Systemic Review
Bilal F Shanti*, Ihsan F Shanti and Zaynab IF Shanti
Omnia Pain Consultants, Scottsdale AZ, USA
*Corresponding Author: Bilal F Shanti, Omnia Pain Consultants, Scottsdale AZ, USA.
January 28, 2023; Published: March 21, 2023
Whiplash injuries or the group of whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) occur when there is shifting and movement of energy, during a crash or collision, from acceleration-deceleration mechanism transferred to the neck region. WAD is characterized by excessive extension-flexion movements, and/or excessive side bending of the head and neck, beyond the normal and regular range of motion.
Although motor vehicle collisions are the majority of trauma responsible for WAD, other causes also include contact sports injuries, falls, physical and domestic abuse, and other types of traumas.
The clinical picture and presentation are variable. In general, this includes neck pain, decreased range of motion of neck, headaches, arm or arms numbness, and other related symptoms and signs that depend on the extent of the insult. This possibly may include consequences of fractures, joint dislocations, and even traumatic brain injuries/post-concussional syndrome, with its subsequent clinical outcomes.
The trauma associated with WAD outcome can result in acute and chronic pain syndromes, functionality limitations and restrictions, psychological and psychosocial ramifications, financial crisis, unemployment, and in cases, prolonged disability. This causes a significant economic burden on country.
This review manuscript will review the latest in WAD etiologies, biomechanics, diagnosis, management, and prognosis. We base out review on relevant databases such as PubMed, Ovid-Medline, Embase, Web of Science, NIH website, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library. No Institutional Review Board permission was obtained since this manuscript does not directly involve animals or humans.
Keywords: Whiplash; Whiplash-Associated Disorder; Neck Pain; Chronic Neck Pain; Motor Vehicle Collision; Chronic Pain Syndrome; Chronic Pain; Neck Trauma
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