Identifying Acquired Dyslexia and Dysgraphia Patterns in Greek Patients
After Traumatic and Non-Traumatic Brain Disorders
Victoria Zakopoulou1*, Labrini Magou2, Konstantinos Tsamis3, Nefeli Dimitriou4, Glykeria Loli4, Iliana Kolotoura4, Vasiliki Kostadima5 and Avraam Ploumis6
1Associate Professor, Department of Speech and Language Therapy, Laboratory of New Approaches in Communication Disorders, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece
2MSc, Logotherapist, University Hospital of Ioannina, Physical Medicine, and
Rehabilitation ‘S. Niarchos’, Ioannina, Greece
3Assistant Professor, Laboratory of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece
4Logotherapist, Department of Speech and Language Therapy, Laboratory of New
Approaches in Communication Disorders, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece
5Consultant Neurologist, University Hospital of Ioannina, Clinic of Neurology, Ioannina, Greece
6Professor, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece
*Corresponding Author: Victoria Zakopoulou, Associate Professor, Department of Speech and Language Therapy, Laboratory of New Approaches in Communication Disorders, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.
November 22, 2022; Published: December 12, 2022
Introduction: Acquired reading and writing difficulties, characterized as acquired dyslexia (AD) and dysgraphia (ADg), are potentially unique patterns of communication disabilities observed after traumatic and non-traumatic brain disorders (T-nTBDs).
Objectives: In this study, we investigated whether a very early differential diagnosis between AD/ADg and Aphasia is attainable. We sought to form, analyze, and interpret well-defined AD/ADg, aphasia-differentiated, diagnostic profiles.
Methods: A total of 23 Greek patients with T-nTBDs, with no previous history of language disabilities, were recruited. All patients were administered the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and Dyslexia Adults Screening Test (DAST), before and six months after completing a systematic rehabilitation program.
Results: 24% of patients were diagnosed with AD/ADg as the predominant disorder at two testing stages, while surface AD/ADg types were underlined. In both testing stages, the highest ‘At-Risk’ for Dyslexia Quotient was recorded in the domains of reading, writing, spelling, and rapid naming. Statistically significant correlations were also observed between these domains. After a six months speech and language therapy not tailored to AD/ADg difficulties, identical reading and writing deficits to the baseline examination were observed.
Conclusions: The findings showed that a number of patients with T-nTBDs exhibit unique AD and ADg patterns, aphasia differentiated, and potentially identified at a very early diagnostic stage. They underlined specific skills affected, highlighting a system of complex interactions in the lexical retrieval route of the reading and writing process, reflecting surface dyslexia and dysgraphia. Such findings particularly emphasize the importance of developing effective, AD/ADg oriented treatments.
Keywords: Traumatic and Non-Traumatic Brain Disorders; Aphasia; Acquired Dyslexia; Differential Diagnosis
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