Acta Scientific Neurology (ASNE) (ISSN: 2582-1121)

Perspective Volume 5 Issue 11

Reward Deficiency Syndrome Model of Addiction Psychiatry: Everywhere, Everything, and All at Once

Kenneth Blum1-5*, Abdalla Bowirrat6, Mauro Ceccanti7, Catherine Dennen8, Thomas McLaughlin3, David Baron1, Igor Elman9,10, Eric R Braverman3, Mark S Gold11, Ashim Gupta12, Panayotis K Thanos13, Daniel Gastelu14 and Rajendra D Badgaiyan15,16

1Division of Addiction Research and Education, Center for Mental Health and Sports Psychiatry, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA

2 Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary

3Division of Nutrigenomics, The Kenneth Blum Neurogenetic and Behavioral Institute, LLC, Austin, TX, USA

4Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA

5Department of Psychiatry, Wright University Boonshoft School of Medicine, Dayton, OH, USA and Center for Genomics and Applied Gene Technology, Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Nonakuri, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal, India

6Department of Molecular Biology, Adelson School of Medicine, Ariel University, Ariel, Israel

7Department of Translational and Precision Medicine, Sapienza University, Rome - Italy

8Department of Family Medicine, Jefferson Health Northeast, Philadelphia, PA, USA

9Cambridge Health Alliance, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA, USA

10Center for Pain and the Brain (PAIN Group), Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston

11Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA

12Future Biologics, Lawrenceville, GA, USA

13Behavioral Neuropharmacology and Neuroimaging Laboratory, Clinical Research Institute on Addictions, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA

14International Sports Science Association, Phoenix, AZ, USA

15Department of Psychiatry, South Texas Veteran Health Care System, Audie L. Murphy Memorial VA Hospital, Long School of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA

16Department of Psychiatry, MT. Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA

*Corresponding Author: Kenneth Blum, Division of Addiction Research and Education, Center for Mental Health and Sports Psychiatry, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA.

Received: July 18,2022; Published: October 12, 2022


In the 21st century, the world is experiencing unwanted catastrophic issues that are affecting billions daily, including climate change, politically based hate, war, gun violence, anti-women's rights, COVID, an out-of-control drug epidemic, and a global mental health crisis [1]. Since 2015, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), World Health Organization (WHO), and Informal Scientific Network (ISN) have strived to bring the voice of science, as it pertains to addiction medicine, to inform critical discussions at the Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND), the policymaking body of the United Nations with prime responsibility for drug control matters [2]. The opioid overdose crisis represents an increasingly global challenge, one associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality [3]. The contours of the epidemic have been most extensively documented in North America, but serious situations are developing around the world. Meanwhile, millions of people worldwide suffer from moderate to severe pain without access to opioid analgesics, despite the provisions of the international drug conventions. For these reasons, during the CND's 61st session, the ISN examined the opioid overdose crisis and presented a statement with recommendations for consideration by the CND [4].


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  17. Moran M., et al. “High Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS) in Chronically Prescribed Severe Chronic Opioid Probands Attending Multi-Pain Clinics: an Open Clinical Pilot Trial”. Molecular Neurobiology 58.7 (2021): 3335-3346.
  18. Blum K., et al. “Exploration of Epigenetic State Hyperdopaminergia (Surfeit) and Genetic Trait Hypodopaminergia (Deficit) During Adolescent Brain Development”. Current Psychopharmacology 10 (2021): 10.
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  20. Blum K., et al. “In Search of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)-free Controls: The "Holy Grail" in Genetic Addiction Risk Testing”. Current Psychopharmacology 9.1 (2020): 7-21.


Citation: Kenneth Blum., et al. “Reward Deficiency Syndrome Model of Addiction Psychiatry: Everywhere, Everything, and All at Once". Acta Scientific Neurology 5.11 (2022): 36-42.


Copyright: © 2022 Kenneth Blum., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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